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The origins of event tourism as a topic of serious academic interest are comparatively recent. The subject is largely a postwar development which began especially to unfold in the 1970s, not least in response to a growing interest and recognition of the potential value of events to society, economy and culture. Event tourism is now a vibrant and dynamic field of study and research. Tourists throughout the world are visiting events ranging in scale from the Olympic Games to community festivals.
In 2004 D. Getz divided planned events into seven different categories and these categories can be found in almost every culture and community. Events can also be categorized according to their tourism appeal and significance.
As stated in the third chapter event tourism is at the ne ...
1 Historical Background of Event Tourism 4
2 Event Tourism Classification 6
3 Event Tourism Management Technologies 9
LIST OF REFERENCES 14
Tourism is an economic sector that offer a significant contribution to the economic growth of a country and to the labor market and produces occupation directly and indirectly through the supply of goods and the different services for tourist activities. Moreover, tourism produces benefits to region enrichment and environment by protecting, maintaining or creating national parks, reservations or other protected areas.
The newest and the most promising form of tourism is event tourism. According to Collins T. and Minnis R. “Event Tourism is a systematic planning, development, and marketing of festivals and special events as tourist attractions, image-makers, catalysts for infrastructure and economic growth, and animators of
built attraction” [Collins and Minnis, 2007]. T arget market consists of those people who travel to attend events, or who can be motivated to attend events while away from home. Event tourism applies to all types of events including cultural celebrations, sport competition and various entertainment and educational events. Organization of event tourism differs from other types of tourism in a number of characteristics.
This work analysis the features of event tourism organization and current status of event tourism development in the world. The main goal of the paper is to find out the specifics of event management and tourism.
The first part of the work looks at the history of the origin and further development of event tourism. The second part is devoted to the types and classification of event tourism. The third part describes the specifics of event management and tourism.
Фрагмент работы для ознакомления
Cultural celebrations, including festivals, carnivals, religious events and the arts and entertainment in general (mainly concerts, shows and theatrical productions) are often subsumed in the literature on cultural tourism. The most popular event in cultural tourism is carnival. It is an annual celebration of life found in many countries of the world. The first carnivals were held during the period of Renaissance in Venice, Italy. Nowadays a lot of tourists come to see carnivals in Brazil, Spain, Uruguay and Germany.2 Event Tourism Classifications From the tourism industry's perspective, all existing events can be divided into four groups (Fig. 1):local events;regional events;periodic hallmark events;occasional mega-events. Fig. 1 – The destination perspective on event tourism [D. Getz, 2005]Possible measures of ‘value’ in Fig. 1 include:growth potential;market share;quality of services;image enhancement;community (region) support;economic benefits;sustainability and safety;appropriateness.Getz used the term ‘hallmark’ to describe “an event that possesses such significance, in terms of tradition, attractiveness, quality, or publicity, that the event provides the host venue, community, or destination with a competitive advantage. Over time, the event and destination can become inextricably linked, such as Mardi Gras and New Orleans” [D. Getz, 2005]‘Local’ and ‘regional’ events, occupying the base levels of the pyramid, are problematic from a tourism perspective. Some of them have tourism potential that can be developed, requiring investment, and some are not interested in tourism—perhaps even feeling threatened by it. If local events are primarily community or culturally oriented there is a good argument to be made for not exploiting them. Hallmark events are “Major one-time or recurring events of limited duration, developed primarily to enhance the awareness, appeal and profitability of a tourism destination” [Ritchie, 1984]. ‘Mega events’ are those that attract an enormous number of visitors such as World Cups, Olympic Games and so on and have long been related to image-making or developmental roles for the host region.From the tourists’ perspective, all existing events can be divided into seven categories [Getz, 2005]:Cultural celebrations:holydays;festivals;religious events;carnivals etc.Political events;summits;royal occasions;VIP visits etc.Arts & entertainment events:concerts;award ceremonies;fashion shows;parades etc.Sport competitions:Olympic and Paralympic Games;International competitions;World Cups etc.Business & trade events:meetings;conventions;fairs, markets;exhibitions etc.Educational & scientific events:conferences;lectures and seminars;courses etc.Private events: birthday parties;weddings;reunions;and other celebrations.It is needless to say that event tourism is now a vibrant and dynamic field of study and research, so classification is constantly expanding to cover all of new types of different events.3 Event Tourism Management Technologies Nowadays ‘event tourism’ is generally recognized as fast growing segment of tourism. Table 1 represents all the positive and negative impact of this special form of tourism (Table 1).Table 1- The impact of event tourism [Skoultsos, Tsimitakis, 2009]PositiveNegative123Economic• Increase in standard of living• Increased expenditures• Increase in labour supply• Creation of employment• Price increases during event• Inadequate capital• Real estate speculation• Better alternative investments• Failure to attract tourists• Inadequate estimation of costs of eventTourism/commercial• Increased knowledge concerning thepotential for investment andcommercial activity in the region• Increased awareness of the region asa travel/tourism destination• Creation of new accommodation andtourist attractions• Increase in accessibility• Negative reactions from existingenterprises due to the possibility ofnew competition for local manpowerand government assistance • Acquisition of a poor reputation as aresult of inadequate facilities,improper practices or inflated pricesTable 1 (continued)123Physical/environmental• Strengthening of regional values andtraditions• Increase in permanent level of localinterest and participation in types ofactivity associated with event• Commercialization of activities whichmay be of a personal or private nature• Modification of nature of event oractivity to accommodate tourism• Potential increase in crime• Changes in community structure• Social dislocationPsychological• Increased awareness of non-localperceptions• Increased local pride and communityspirit• Tendency toward defensive attitudesconcerning host region• Misunderstanding leading to varyingdegrees of host/visitor hostility• Culture shockPolitical/administrative• Development of skills amongplanners• Enhanced international recognition ofregion and values• Increase in administrative costs• Economic exploitation of localpopulation to satisfy ambitions ofpolitical elite• Distortion of true nature of event toreflect elite values• Inability to achieve aimsAccording to Getz in the event management system “each event is both influenced by and has an impact on the community, economy and environment” [Getz, 1997]. Furthermore, in the system each individual event is embedded in three different layers of environment: internal environment, community context and general environment. The internal environment consists of the organization and management systems that are needed to realize each individual event. Every event and its management are also influenced by the community context meaning the local forces and conditions of the host community. Finally, also the general environment consisting of different global forces has an impact on events, eventorganisations and event tourism. The result is an enormous system of many events and stakeholders related to society, economy, ecology and politics, all having an influence on each other. To try to make sense of the bigger picture is difficult and in order to cope with all the uncertainty and complexity a strategy is needed. One good strategy is to try to build up networks and alliances with tourist industry groups, professional associations, government agencies and other special interest groups [Getz, 1997].Event tourism has great similarities with other forms of tourism.
LIST OF REFERENCES
1. Collins T. and Minnis R. Perceived Community Impacts of Event Tourism: Case Study of the 2006 “Hot Wheels Event” hosted in Speed, Kansas. Docking Institute of Public Affairs Fort Hays State University Hays, Kansas, 2007
2. Getz D. Event Tourism: Definition, Evolution and Research. Tourism Management, 2007
3. Kovačič M. The role of convention bureaus in crisis. Kongress Magazine, No. 4 / 2011
4. Ritchie J.R.B. Assessing the impacts of hallmark events: Conceptual and research issues. Managing event operations, 2010
5. Skoultsos S.G. and Tsimitakis E.N. Event Tourism: Statements And Questions About Its Impacts On Rural Areas. Tourismos: an International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 2009
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