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Путешествие Ч.Дарвина на корабле

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Описание

Humanists today tend to think that moral values must have evolved because they are useful to our species.Darwin was an independent thinker, a great scientist and the most influential biologist in history. The Darwinian theory of evolution caused massive controversy, and is still condemned by some religious people as it contradicts the biblical creation story and undermines claims about the literal truth of the Bible. His friend T H Huxley defended the theory in a famous debate with Archbishop Wilberforce. In many subsequent books and papers Darwin, and biologists after him, developed his ideas and uncovered more evidence from the fossil record, establishing evolution by natural selection as a central explanatory force, a linchpin of modern science.
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Содержание


Introduction 3
1.1 Biography. 4
1.2 Travel aboard the "Beagle". The ideas underlying the theory of evolution. 6
1.3 Works of Charles Darwin 8
1.4 Evolutionary ideas before Darwin 10
1.5 State of Biology in the UK in the late 19th century 13
Conclusion 15
References 17


Введение

Introduction
Among the most famous scientific expeditions of the XIX century the trip around the world of a small English brigs "Beagle" under the command of Captain Robert Fitz Roy is one of the largest sites. Staying on board the "Beagle" as naturalist greatest biologist of the XIX century expedition. Charles Darwin himself is, of course, the main fact, which immortalized the name of the "glorious little boat", "Beagle". The most significant result of traveling on the "Beagle" is that biological and geological discoveries and observations of Darwin in South America, the Galapagos Islands and other places laid the foundation of Darwin's evolutionary theory. Darwin himself always emphasized what an enormous role in shaping his evolutionary beliefs played a tour on board the "Beagle". He s poke in detail about this in his autobiography.
The goal of our work - to find out how Darwin's voyage around the world affected his evolutionary views.
To achieve the goal we have to solve a number of problems:
- To study the origins of Darwin and his education
- What are the features of his character helped to link his life with biology as a career
- Describe trip aboard the Beagle
- Any natural phenomena he observed, which formed the basis of his evolutionary ideas
- Study the development of biology In Great Britain in the late 19th century
Subject of research: Darwin voyage on the ship "Beagle"


Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

 1 August 1828. While the Beagle was surveying Tierra del Fuego, Capt. Pringle Stokes cracked under the stress and shot himself. He died on the morning of the 12th. Robert FitzRoy was put in command of the Beagle.May 1829. John Barrow, Second Secretary of the Admiralty, selected Capt. Francis Beaufort to head the Hydrographic Office (he replaced Capt. William Parry). Through him the Hydrographic Office developed a far more scientific character than it had under Thomas Hurd. Among his most notable accomplishments was the development of the "Beaufort Scale", a means by which one could judge the speed of the wind visually. Capt. Robert FitzRoy made wide use of it during the Beagle's second survey.14 October 1830. H.M.S. Beagle and Adventure return to England at Plymouth.November 1830. After the Beagle was paid off she was laid in ordinary at Devonport Dockyard.Late 1830. H.M.S. Chanticleer (one of the six survey ships built in 1817) was scheduled for the second South America survey, but because she was in such poor condition the Beagle was selected instead. The Chanticleer was eventually sold to the Customs Office in 1833.1.3 Works of Charles DarwinDarwin was a prolific writer. Even without publication of his works on evolution, he would have had a considerable reputation as the author of The Voyage of the Beagle, as a geologist who had published extensively on South America and had solved the puzzle of the formation of coral atolls, and as a biologist who had published the definitive work on barnacles. While On the Origin of Species dominates perceptions of his work, The Descent of Man and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals had considerable impact, and his books on plants including The Power of Movement in Plants were innovative studies of great importance, as was his final work on The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms.Darwin published a book known as the abbreviation "Naturalist’s journey around the world on the ship" Beagle "" (1839). It was a great success, and a second, expanded edition (1845) was translated into many European languages ​​and reprinted many times. Darwin also took part in writing the five-volume monograph "Zoology travel" (1842). As a zoologist Darwin chose the subject of his study of barnacles, and soon became the best in the world specialist in this group. He wrote and published a four-volume monograph “Barnacle” (Monograph on the Cirripedia, 1851-1854), which zoologists are still using. In 1868, Darwin published his second work on the theme of evolution - "The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication» (The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication), which included many examples of the evolution of organisms. In 1871 there was another important work of Darwin - "The Descent of Man and sexual selection» (The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex), where Darwin brought arguments in favor of the natural origin of man from animals (apelike ancestors). Among other well-known Darwin later works are - "Pollination of orchids » (The Fertilization of Orchids, 1862); "Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals» (The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 1872); "The action of cross-pollination and self-pollination in the plant world» (The Effects of Cross - and Self-Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom, 1876).1.4 Evolutionary ideas before DarwinLet us dwell briefly on the historical aspect of the theory of evolution in general, and evolutionary ecology in particular. The evolutionary trend in science developed and acquired its own specific outlines long before the release of ecology as a science in the fight against the various ideas and areas of continuous development, on the one hand and the metaphysical concept of the creation of nature and immutability of its components, on the other. Thorough theories of organic evolution were put forward only in the XIX century. Prior to that, the idea of ​​evolutionary development of the world existed as separate forms of evolutionism. Understanding the development of the biosphere gradually loomed in the fight against the materialistic and idealistic views. The point of view of the idealists of the world - an act of intangible factors that determined the evolution of the world.Ideas about the origin of life from non-living and dynamic development were even 2 - 3 thousand years BC, scholars in the countries of the Ancient East (Egypt, China, India, Babylonia).. Ancient Greek philosophers Heraclitus, Democritus, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and the Roman scholar and poet Lucretius in his work expressed the brilliant guesses - ideas about the nature of development, although the development of the reasons were interpreted largely in terms of theology or mechanics.French naturalist Georges-Louis Buffon in 1749 tried the first time to calculate the age of the Earth; he estimated that it was equal to about 70,000 years (in unpublished notes indicate the age of 500,000 years). Immanuel Kant in his "Cosmogony" in 1755 states that the Earth is millions and even hundreds of millions of years. Buffon and Kant quite clearly imagine the physical world as a result of evolution.A certain failure in the development of the doctrine of evolution should be noted in the Middle Ages, due to:1) stagnation in the development of science in this period;2) the influence of the reactionary Church,3) economic and social conditions.Some materialists of the XVIII century (P. Holbach, K. Helvetius, etc.) the universe considered as a continuously moving and changing matter and types of organisms - are also constantly changing. M.V. Lomonosov and A.N. Radishchev supported the idea of ​​the continuity of the changes in the organic world development from simple to complex. KF Wolf substantiated epigenesist as the gradual development of the parts and organs of plants and animals in embryogenesis, expanded epigenetic principle by applying it to the biosphere as a whole, considering it endlessly changing. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant substantiated the hypothesis of the solar system from a gaseous nebula, arguing thus the historical development of the solar system, including Earth. JL Buffon on the basis of this hypothesis links the origin and development of living organisms with a history of the Earth, recognizing the specific role of climate, food and a change in hybridization of animals.The specific contribution to the development of evolutionary ideas in the late XVIII century, also made the naturalist and poet, grandfather of the future Erasmus Darwin genius in such works as "The Temple of Nature", "Botanical Garden", etc..In the first half of the XIX century Russian scientists A.N. Beketov, I.E. Dyadkovsky, K.I. Maksimovic, H.I. Pander, L.S. Penkovsky, K.F. Rul'e in their works actively developed the idea of ​​evolutionary transformations of living organisms. A special role in this period, played cell theory, clearly indicating the unity of the organic world. Cell theory (every animal and plant organism develops from the cells and is made up of cells and their derivatives) was formulated by the German scientist T. Schwann (1839), who believed that cells are formed due to the crystallization of the amorphous material - meristoma, rather than by their division.From a brief analysis of the progressive dynamism of different ideas of evolutionary development of the biosphere organisms it is not difficult to conclude that the considered direction was developed by specialists of particular disciplines, although most of them were represented by botanists and zoologists. The whole historic period up to the middle of the XIX century, was accumulated experimental data confirming the actual trend in the evolution of the organic world, which paved the way for the formation of materialistic Darwinism, overturned a lot in the development of theoretical views on the development of nature that existed before the evolutionary scientist Charles Robert Darwin.1.5 State of Biology in the UK in the late 19th centuryDuring the second half of the 19th century in Britain appeared Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism, term coined in the late 19th century to describe the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in "survival of the fittest." Social Darwinists base their beliefs on theories of evolution developed by British naturalist Charles Darwin. Some social Darwinists argue that governments should not interfere with human competition by attempting to regulate the economy or cure social ills such as poverty. Instead, they advocate a laissez-faire political and economic system that favors competition and self-interest in social and business affairs. Social Darwinists typically deny that they advocate a "law of the jungle." But most propose arguments that justify imbalances of power between individuals, races, and nations because they consider some people more fit to survive than others.

Список литературы

chpin of modern science.
References
1. Charles Darwin “On the Origin of Species”
2. Charles Darwin. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin
3. Peter Bowler “Evolution: The History of an Idea”
4. Richard Owen. Biology without Darwin, a Revised Edition
5. The Harvard Classics edited by Charles W. Eliot, LL.D. The Voyage of the Beagle.


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