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Мотивация внешняя и внутренняя.

Курсовая работа*
Код 98161
Дата создания 2011
Страниц 22
Источников 10
По техническим причина покупка готовых работ временно недоступна.
1 390руб.

Содержание

Plan
Introduction. Motivation as a force to achieve a goal.
1. Motivation concepts
1.1. Extrinsic motivation
1.2. Intrinsic motivation
1.3. Motivation as a business factor: motivated employees.
2. Motivation theories
2.1. 16 basic desires theory and intrinsic motivation
2.2. Need hierarchy theory and motivation
2.3. Herzberg's two-factor theory
3. Motivation of employees in different countries
3.1. Comparing of employees motivation in Japan and USA
3.2. Motivation of service providers in different countries: medical service in Uganda and Bangladesh.
Conclusion.
Attachment: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Literature

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

This concept is related with human resources attraction, maintenance of their work ability, education and creation of working conditions, directed to personal development. This policy is quite individualistic in comparison with Japanese.
The key approach of American personnel motivation is that staff is considered to be a resource, that is why the success of enterprise is related with this resource condition. Every company invests into its human resources by education of employees, providing social insurance and good working conditions. The American management policy also refers to the team building, but each member of the team is considered as the individual, that is why here the competition between workers themselves is approved. American motivation approach is based, however, on both types of motivation: extrinsic, such as salary and all other goods offered by company, and intrinsic, such as satisfaction of employee's necessity in esteem – investing into human resources make the personnel feel to be valued by his enterprise.
Thus, different countries use different approaches of motivating their personnel to increase enterprise work efficacy. Both approaches are effective, but they could be used in particular conditions, dependent on ethnic and historical peculiarities of the countries.
3.2. Motivation of service providers in different countries: medical service in Uganda and Bangladesh.
Motivated service providers are very important to provide good quality care in medical service. Although motivation has been studied very precisely in various kinds of business, there is little information about this in medical service. Very little is known on the factors that influence motivation in a health care situation.
The study was based on medical service providers in Uganda and Bangladesh. In each country a study with employment of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection was performed. The quantitative data was obtained by the questionnaires. The qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions.
The study involved service providers in a number of different settings. They ranged from Ministry of Health clinics and Family Planning Association clinics to community based service agents in less accessible areas.
The quantitative part of the research was performed with questionnaire. The questions ranged from the fulfilment of service providers basic needs, such as living conditions and working conditions, to the satisfaction of their higher needs, such as recognition, encouragement and so on. Also this questionnaire contained questions relating to the perception of the value of their work to patients and the whole community.
The qualitative part of the research was performed through focus group discussions. All participants previously completed the questionnaires. The discussions concerned the importance of motivation for good quality of service, factors affecting motivation of employees and the best ways to improve motivation.
The results of this research showed the following. In response to question, what makes their job most satisfying respondents from Uganda stated the contribution they felt to make to the served community. In Bangladesh altruistic reasons were also given to explain satisfaction from their jobs, yet in their case the dominant factor was the ability to satisfy the needs of individual clients, rather than the whole community. These findings were supported during discussion, when it became clear, that for almost all participants the key factor in their motivation was the awareness of the benefits that their services brought. Participants stated that knowing the benefits bringing by them to other people underlie in their self confidence and encouraged them to perform their work.
While the factors that made service providers jobs most satisfying were linked to a perception of their role in community, factors that made their jobs least satisfying related to their working conditions and the benefits they receive from the job. Amongst Uganda employees the least satisfying factor was poor remuneration and in Bangladesh - that respondents were unable to provide good quality of care because of poor facilities. The second least satisfying factor in Bangladesh was poor remuneration, like in Uganda, and in Uganda it was poor management.
During discussion in both Uganda and Bangladesh, poor or occasional supervision was found as one of the least satisfying aspects of their job. Supervision was believed to be a major factor by which providers can improve their skills, can be encouraged in their work and can correct their mistakes. Appreciation, compliments and encouragement from supervisors was also discussed as being important to service provider’s motivation. Many of the service providers in both countries mentioned the importance of training. They said that training is a way to refresh skills and learn new skills, which makes them feel themselves competent and well informed.
Heavy workload was found by many respondents as a strong demotivating factor. The majority of them felt unhappy and cheated because they had not been paid for working extra-hours. It is also interesting to note that many of them worked the extra-hours because “clients came outside official hours”. This highlights the perception of their roles as service providers. It was also mentioned that service providers in both countries felt that the high volume of paper work resulted into that they couldn’t give enough attention to all patients.
Analysis of the obtained data showed, that many of the results were similar both in Uganda and Bangladesh, despite the different country settings. In both countries motivation is strongly influenced by workers altruism, their necessity to do something to benefit others – particular client or the community in the whole. We can conclude, that the intrinsic motivation here plays an unsurpassed role for medical service workers. The motivation is also related to what service providers need or expect for themselves, but this plays only secondary role. Good management style and good relationships between medical service providers were also important motivating factors. On the other hand poor remuneration, inadequate equipment and hard workload were believed to be de-motivating factors.
The analysis showed that these results were similar in both countries, as well as in a number different service delivery settings (because community based and clinical based services both took part in investigation). That is why we believe that they may be generally applicable and could be transferred to other countries. In the whole we see, that in case of medical service intrinsic motivation plays general role as a moving factor for employees work. External motivators also influence, but their role is weaker. Moreover, external factors in case of medical service more often play the role of de-motivators, that gives us food for reflection and shows the direction for improvement of medical service.
Conclusion.
Motivation is a driving force that makes employees work hard and effective. Every employee must be motivated to work for a company or organization. If there will be no motivation for an employee, then his quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate. That is why today in postindustrial society the problem of personnel motivation is of high importance.
There are known 2 types of the motivation: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is related with different external goods and rewards, such as salary, bonuses, advancement and social insurance. Intrinsic motivation, in turn, underlies in satisfaction of employee's internal needs: good working conditions (related to physiological needs, such as food and enough rest, and need of safety, such as security of body), need of relationship (working in team), need of esteem, self-esteem and respect of others (creation of working conditions, when each employee feels himself valued and respected by his company) and need of self-actualization.
Intrinsic motivation is considered to be more effective driving force, than extrinsic, but extrinsic motivation could be internalized: all external goods offered by company could be considered as evidence that employee is valued by his company.
Using these strategies and increasing of personnel motivation is a key to company's prosperity and success.
Attachment: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Literature
1. Deci E. L. Why we do what we do / E. L. Deci. - Penguin Group, 1995. - 439 p.
2. Eisenberger R. Reciprocation of perceived organisational support. / R. Eisenberger // Journal of Applied Psychology. - 2001. - №86. - P. 42-51.
3. Geary D. C. The Motivation to Control and the Origin of Mind: Exploring the Life–Mind Joint Point in the Tree of Knowledge System / D. C. Geary. - Journal of clinical psychology. - 2005. - №61. - P. 21-46
4. Huezo C. Improving the Quality of Care by Improving the Motivation of Service Providers / C. Huezo. - London, UK: International Planned Parenthood Federation, 2001. - 24 p.
5. Lepper M. R. Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation: Uses and abuses of meta-analysis./ M. R. Lepper [et al] // Psychological Bulletin., 1999. - №125. - P. 669 – 676.
6. Malone T. W. Making learning fun: A taxonomic model of intrinsic motivations for learning / T. W. Malone, M. R. Lepper - Hillsdale, NJ, 1987. - P. 223-253
7. Pierce W. D. Behavior Analysis and Learning 3rd ed. / W. D. Pierce, C. D. Cheney. - NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2009. - 509 p.
8. Purkey W. W. Invitational counseling: A self-concept approach to professional practice /W. W. Purkey, J. J. Shmidt. - Pacific Grove, CA, 1996 – 316 p.
9. Reiss S. Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: The theory of 16 basic desires. / S. Reiss. - Review of General Psychology, 2004. - №8 (3). - P. 179–193
10. Shinn G. The miracle of motivation / G. Shinn. - London: Tyndal House. - 1991. - 224 p.
Shinn G. The miracle of motivation / G. Shinn. - London: Tyndal House. - 1991. - 224 p.
Deci E. L. Why we do what we do / E. L. Deci. - Penguin Group, 1995. - 439 p.
Purkey W. W. Invitational counseling: A self-concept approach to professional practice /W. W. Purkey, J. J. Shmidt. - Pacific Grove, CA, 1996 – 316 p.
Malone T. W. Making learning fun: A taxonomic model of intrinsic motivations for learning / T. W. Malone, M. R. Lepper - Hillsdale, NJ, 1987. - P. 223-253
Eisenberger R. Reciprocation of perceived organisational support. / R. Eisenberger // Journal of Applied Psychology. - 2001. - №86. - P. 42-51.
Lepper M. R. Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation: Uses and abuses of meta-analysis./ M. R. Lepper [et al] // Psychological Bulletin., 1999. - №125. - P. 669 – 676.
Reiss S. Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: The theory of 16 basic desires. / S. Reiss. - Review of General Psychology, 2004. - №8 (3). - P. 179–193
Huezo C. Improving the Quality of Care by Improving the Motivation of Service Providers / C. Huezo. - London, UK: International Planned Parenthood Federation, 2001. - 24 p
7

Список литературы

Literature
1.Deci E. L. Why we do what we do / E. L. Deci. - Penguin Group, 1995. - 439 p.
2.Eisenberger R. Reciprocation of perceived organisational support. / R. Eisenberger // Journal of Applied Psychology. - 2001. - №86. - P. 42-51.
3.Geary D. C. The Motivation to Control and the Origin of Mind: Exploring the Life–Mind Joint Point in the Tree of Knowledge System / D. C. Geary. - Journal of clinical psychology. - 2005. - №61. - P. 21-46
4.Huezo C. Improving the Quality of Care by Improving the Motivation of Service Providers / C. Huezo. - London, UK: International Planned Parenthood Federation, 2001. - 24 p.
5.Lepper M. R. Understanding the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation: Uses and abuses of meta-analysis./ M. R. Lepper [et al] // Psychological Bulletin., 1999. - №125. - P. 669 – 676.
6.Malone T. W. Making learning fun: A taxonomic model of intrinsic motivations for learning / T. W. Malone, M. R. Lepper - Hillsdale, NJ, 1987. - P. 223-253
7.Pierce W. D. Behavior Analysis and Learning 3rd ed. / W. D. Pierce, C. D. Cheney. - NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2009. - 509 p.
8.Purkey W. W. Invitational counseling: A self-concept approach to professional practice /W. W. Purkey, J. J. Shmidt. - Pacific Grove, CA, 1996 – 316 p.
9.Reiss S. Multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation: The theory of 16 basic desires. / S. Reiss. - Review of General Psychology, 2004. - №8 (3). - P. 179–193
10.Shinn G. The miracle of motivation / G. Shinn. - London: Tyndal House. - 1991. - 224 p.
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