Интенсивные методы обучения взрослых слушателей устной речи на начальном этапе обуч(на примере яз курсов)

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Введение 2
Глава 1. Теоретические основы обучения взрослых устной стороне речи на английском языке в условиях интенсивного обучения 6
1.1. Психолого-возрастные особенности и основные психологические функции взрослых учащихся 6
1.2. Интенсификация процесса обучения устной стороне речи на английском языке в условиях краткосрочных курсов 13
1.3. Интенсивное и интенсифицированное обучение устной стороне речи на английском языке 27
1.4.Способы интенсификации процесса обучения взрослых иностранному языку 39
Глава 2. Содержание и методы обучения взрослых устной стороне речи на английском языке в условиях краткосрочных курсов 45
2.1. Отбор и организация учебного материала 45
2.2. Методика обучения взрослых учащихся устной стороне говорения на иностранном языке в условиях краткосрочных курсов 67
Заключение 83
Список литературы 85
Приложения 92

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

Fill in the blanks with "do", "does", or "did"A:you want to go shopping this afternoon?В: I, but I can’t because I'm going for a walk with Barbara.A: Butnot you take a walk with Barbara yesterday?В: I.A: I've never met Barbara.you think she might like to go shopping?В: I not think so. She not do much shopping.A: That’s strange. Why not?B: Barbara’s my dog! Dogsnot go shopping very oftenthey?Ask someone how he or she spends his or her free time. Tell that person how you spend your free time.Model: L: How do you spend your free time?M : I read, go to the pictures, play a little tennis. And you?L.: I like to meet people like you. Are you busy tonight?: How do you spend your free time? : . And you?A.:.Translate the following dialogue into Russian and then play the dialogue inpairs.A: What do you think of Kate and Olga?В: Kate is prettier than Olga, that's evident, but Olga is more intelligent than Kate - much more intelligent.A: Let’s hire Olga, then. Intelligence is more important than appearance.В: I agree.Mike wants to go out with Jane, but she doesn’t want to go out with him. He asks her if she is free today, and she says no. He then asks her about several other days, but she responds by saying that she is busy and is going to various places on those days. Finally, Jane reluctantly breaks down and says yes. Mike ends the dialogue by exclaiming enthusiastically: "Oh, Jane, you’re fantastic!"Mike: Jane, are you free today?Jane:Mike: And tomorrow?Jane:M: How about Monday night?Jane:M: I suppose you're busy on Thursday night, too.Jane:M: Oh, Jane, you're fantastic!A: father/motherB: son/daughterAsk what В did last night.Answer A by stating a few things you didAsk why В came home at 4 a.m. Act surprised: You thought A didn’t hear you come home late. Give a good reasonwhy youcame home so late.Tell В you worried about him/her. Tell A you are sorry you didn't call him/her.Ролевые игры:1. You work at the railway station. Help the customer (to reserve seats in a nonsmoking carriage; to find the compartment; etc).You want to go to Liverpool in the evening. Ask about prices and times (you want to go reasonably quickly and cheaply). Find a suitable way to go and buy a ticket).Your suitcase is missing on your arrival to the place of destination. Report to the officer (describe your luggage; give the name of the hotel you are staying at; provide some other necessary information as you need your things quickly).Приложение 2.Учебно-методический комплексUNIT 1 MEETING PEOPLEUNIT GOALSIn this unit you will ...TO START OFFCheck the words you know. Use your dictionary to find out about the words you don’t know.П Read the text.Ш Practice the conversation.Fill in the blanks in the conversation at the English courses.Now, invent a name, nationality and birth-place for yourself. Write your invented name and nationality here:Surname:First name(s):Nationality:Country:Practice the conversation with your partner using the invented information.Fill in the blanks:Which word doesn’t belong?Use your dictionary to find out what countries people of these nationalities are from.DEVELOPING THE TOPICRead the conversation.Now, in groups of four, act out a similar conversation using your invented names, nationalities, countries and relationships.Look at the photograph of Ben’s family. Read the explanation. Then, complete this conversation with Ben.Describe the members of Ben’s family. Use the following words and expressionsShort, tall, pretty, good-looking, beautiful, attractive, baby, well-built, slim, straight (snub) nose, green (blue, dark) eyes, round (oval) face, complexion, young, moustache, beard, blond (dark, fair) hair, teenager, middle-aged, elderly.FOLLOW UPComplete the following sentences:She has long,hair.He has brown hair and blue.He is about thirty-five. He is aman.She is twelve months old. She is still a _.Every woman wants to bebut very few are really.ХП Circle the words that do not belong. Use your dictionary if necessary.1. Greenmauvesmartblue2. Ankleeyesuglychin3. Meatdarkfaircurly4. Thirstytoasterteenagertoddler5. Heavylargetinypeas.ХШ Write the correct words from the previous exercise below these headings:ConnectedWays to de-Parts of theColoursConnectedwith sizescribe hairbodywith ageSKILLS Reading and speakingSomeone Bill does not know is meeting him at the airport in San Francisco. Read this postcard and circle the words that describe people.Dear Bill,Hello from San Francisco. I told your brother that I can pick you up at the airport on Sunday. Let’smeet at your boarding gate. I’m twenty years old butMr. W.Leighlook a bit younger. I’m short and I have red curly hair1500 15th Streetand green eyes. Your brother says you are tall andChicago, 11have dark hair and blue eyes. I guess we won’t have any trouble finding each other.Sincerely,Mirabel Clair30305Work with your partner. Describe yourself and listen to your partner’s description.Now, write a postcard as if you were going to meet your partner at the airport (railway station).Think about. Provide arguments to support your idea.1/ Describe the face of someone you know well.2/ Would you ever have plastic surgery? Why? Why not?3/ Do you like beards and mustaches? Why do you think men grow them?4/ Who is the most beautiful woman and the best-looking man in the world? (Think about famous people such as film-stars...)5/ Do you think it is very difficult to be very good-looking? Why? Why not?6/ How important is it to look attractive? Why?7/ Write a description of a famous person everybody knows. Read the description to your classmates and ask them to guess who that famous person is.8/ Look at these English idioms and then decide whether you agree with them:Beauty is only skin deep.Your face is your fortune. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder (i.e. the person who is looking).LANGUAGE FOCUS IStatements and yes/по questions with to beI Practise this telephone conversation:A: So, I’ll meet you at gate 11 at 9:30. Now, what do you look like?B: Well, I’m forty-one. I’m of average height and weight. I have dark curly hair and brown eyes.A: OK.B: And I’m with my wife. She is thirty-five. She’s tall and she is blond with blue eyes. You can’t miss us!П Which words do you move to make questions? Draw arrows to show youranswers.1.You are Jane.2.I am forty-one.3.His wife is thirty-five.4.Ben is from Chicago.5.It is warm today.6.You are students.7.Your name is Mike.8.They are from England.Match these questions and answers and then practise with your partner.QuestionsAnswersAre you Bill?Yes, you are.Is Maria your girl-friend?Yes, he is.Am I right?Yes, they are.Is your girlfriend nineteen?Yes, she is.Are they students?Yes, I am.Take it in turns to ask and answer the questions.Brad PittEnglish or American?Camparia drink or a singer?a nephewa boy or a girl?a tomatoa fruit or a vegetable?Is/AreBig Bena person or a thing?An Apple Maca fruit or a computer?The Hard Rocka pop group or a cafe?The Canariesislands or mountains?Penguinsbirds or animals?LANGUAGE FOCUS II Wh questions: What and where + to be.I Practise the conversation:A: Hi! Pm Timoty. What’s your name?B: Vera.A: Where are you from?B: St. Petersburg. What about you?A: Pm from Toronto, Canada. What do you do? B: Pm a student. And what do you do?A: Pm a student too.П Fill in the blanks:1.QuestionsWhat’sname?2.Where_you from?3.Wherehe from?4.Whatname?5.Whereshe from?AnswersMyMike.Mikefrom Chicago.Hefrom France.HerYumi.from Japan.6.Whathis name?HisMichael.7.Whattheir names?names are Miguel and Mercedes8.Wherethey from?Theyifrom Spain.TIT Ask and answer these questions:What’s Mike’s last name? His last name is Bladen.Where is Mike from?Where are Miguel and Mercedes from?Where is Yumi from?.Now introduce your partner to another pair. Example:Let me introduce you to my friend. This is Angela. She is twenty. She is from Mexico City, and she is a singer.Use your friend’s invented name, nationality, and occupation.SKILLS Reading and speakingWhy I love this cityDavid, a student at Liverpool UniversityLiverpool is on the River Mersey. The waterfront - called Albert Dock - is famous because it’s in a lot of films. Here you can see “The Beatles Story” - an exhibition about The Beatles. You can also visit the Maritime Museum - a museum about the sea - or take a ferryboat across the Mersey.It’s a busy industrial city but it’s very exciting. We students love all the bars, theatres and night - clubs.We’re also near the sea. The two football clubs, Liverpool and Everton, are very popular. There is also a racecourse at Aintree. You can see the Grand National there every spring.Anna, a teacher from the USA:My parents are from Dublin. It’s on the east coast of Ireland, near the sea. The River Liffey runs through the city. There are a lot of beautiful bridges, parks and elegant grey houses in this small and very old city.The people are kind and friendly.You can meet them in cafes and have delicious Irish coffee (hot coffee, brown sugar, Irish whiskey -with an e! - and cream on the top). Dublin is also famous all over the world for its beer, Guinness is a black beer with a white creamy “head”. There are a thousand pubs in Dublin. It’s also famous for music, dance and poetry. Bob Geldof, Sinead O’Connor, U2, Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw and James Joyce are all Dubliners.1. Read these articles.What two things are the same about Liverpool and Dublin?Read about two cities again and answer the questions,Is there a lot of industry in Liverpool?How many football clubs are there in Liverpool?When is the Grand National?Is Dublin on the west coast of Ireland?What is Irish coffee?Are Bob Geldof and Sinead O’Connor from Liverpool?2. Make a similar story about St.Petersburg or any other city you know and really like.GRAMMAR REFERENCEThe verb to bestatements, questions, and negativescontractions with beNounsthe plural forms of nounsthe plural forms of irregular nounsarticles (the definite and indefinite articles)adjectives with nounsШ Pronounsthe subject (personal) pronounsthis/these, that/those Grammar exercisesFill in the blanks in this conversation at the English courses:Teacher: Hello,you a new student here?Student: Yes, I.T:is your?S: Brown.T: Where from?S: Montreal, Canada.T: Welcome!Fill in the blanks:A: Hello, ITom. B: Hi,to meet you.A:you Michael? В: Yes, I.A: Whatyour name? B: My namePaul.A: AreAnn and Tony? B: Yes, they.A:she Mexican? B: , she isn’t. She’s Brazilian.TheyFrench.A:you from Korea? B: Yes, am.A:’s her nationality? B: is Japanese.IllWhich word does not belong?Ex.: women male book people1) SpanishEnglishJapanesePeru2) Pencilpenspeak book3) Familylistenpractiseread4) FranceKoreanBrazilChina5) You she what IUse your dictionary to find out what countries people of these nationalities are from:Ex.: Polish PolandAnswer the clues to solve the occupations:They work in a restaurant. They are.Put these letters in the correct order and find an occupation: cuotcant n aShe works in a hospital. She is a.work in hospital with doctors.Put these letters in the correct order and find an occupation: w г у a 1 eShe works with a newspaper. She is a.Tom Cruise is an.She works in a school. She is a.Put these letters in the correct order and find an occupation: n e r d a c. 10.10. We are in Paris with “a ruot u i d g e”.Elisabeth Taylor is an..Aflies planes.Read the conversation aloud after the teacher:Maria: Hello, Pm Maria.Kate: Hi, Pm Kate.Maria: This is my husband, Sam.Sam: Nice to meet you.Kate: And this is my boyfriend, Thomas.Thomas: Pleased to meet you.Sam: Where are you from?Thomas: Kate is from the United States, and I’m from Australia. And where are you from?Sam: We are from England.Now in groups of four, act out a similar conversation using your invented names, nationalities, countries, and relationships.Look at the picture of Ben’s family. Read the explanation.This is my wife. Her name is Mary. Our children are Joan and Paul. Mary is from Russia. This is Natasha, her sister, with her boyfriend, Angel, He is from Mexico. Here is James. James is my brother, and that is Christie, his wife. This is their daughter, Diana. I’m not in the picture.Now, complete this conversation with Ben:Friend: Is this your wife?Ben: Yes, it is.F: What’sname?B: Mary.F: Where from?B:is.F: Are thesechildren?B: Yes,are.F: Whatnames?B: Joan and Paul.F:Natasha’s boyfriendRussia?B: No, he isn’t.from Mexico.F: Is this your friend?В: No, it isn’t. This is brother,name is Paul. And here arewife and daughter, Christie and Diana.F: You all look happy!B: Yes,are all very happy in the pictureSOCIAL ENGLISH Dates and timeI Look at the calendar and say the days of the week.П Match A with B.П1 Practise saying the months of the year.JanuaryFebruaryMarchApril MayJune JulyAugustSeptemberOctoberNovemberDecemberWork with a partner. Look at the example and make sentences with these words.Bob’s 17. His birthday is in September. It’s on Monday 15th September.Alan / 33, April. Saturday 5th April.Suzie /13. September. 7th September.Jack and Ann / 20. January and May. 3rd January / 10th May.Vera and Carlos /19. February and July. Friday 28th February / Thursday 31st July.When’s your birthday? What day of the week is it on this year?Ask five people in the class about their birthdays. Then tell the class about them. Example:Kay’s birthday is on Friday 10th May.Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask and answer questions about the clocks. Example:A: What’s the time?В: It’s five past three.Грамматический комментарийИмя существительноеПадежФормально в английском языке у существительного два падежа: общий (Common Case) и притяжательный (Possessive Case). Существительные в общем падеже не имеют специального окончания. В то время как в русском языке для выражения связей в предложении употребляются падежные окончания, в английском языке связи существительного с другими членами предложения выражаются порядком слов и предлогами.Английские предлоги о/ to, with, by соответствуют следующим русским косвенным падежам: of - родительному, to - дательному, by, with - творительному. Например:The manager of the company - управляющий компании.Give this book to Mr. Smith.- Дайте эту книгу м-ру Смиту.This house is built by my grandfather - Этот дом построен моим дедом.write with а реп,- Я пишу ручкой.Существительное в притяжательном падеже является определением к другому существительному, перед которым оно стоит. Оно выражает принадлежность предмета или его отношение к другому предмету (происхождение, авторство, длительность и др.)Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе образуется прибавлением к ним окончания - ‘s Например:Му wife’s dress - платье моей женыJohn's letter - письмо ДжонаThe student’s answer - ответ студентаUpdike’s novels - романы АпдайкаПритяжательный падеж существительных, во множественном числе оканчивающихся на —s, образуется прибавлением к ним знака апострофа. Например:Lawyers ’ offices - конторы адвокатовThe students’ answers - ответы студентовМу friends’ letters - письма моих друзейПритяжательный падеж существительных, не имеющих во множественном числе окончания -s (men, women, children etc.), образуется прибавлением ‘s (как в единственном числе). Например:The children’s room - комната детей (детская комната)NB! В притяжательном падеже употребляются преимущественно одушевленные существительные.Множественное число существительныхКак правило, имена существительные английского языка принимают во множественном числе окончание -s, которое добавляется к основе существительного в единственном числе.Если существительное в единственном числе оканчивается на -s, -sh, - ch, -tch, то соответствующее слово принимает во множественном числе окончание -es . Например: bus - buses; dress - dresses; box - boxes; wish - wishes; church - churches; match - matches.Существительные, форма единственного числа которых оканчивается на у, следующую за согласной, подвергаются во множественном числе изменениям: буква у переходит в i, слово принимает окончание -es. Например: story - stones; city - cities; lady - ladies; army - armies; comedy - comedies.Этому правилу не подчиняются существительные, в форме единственного числа которых букве у предшествует гласная. Например: day - days, boy - boys; key - keys; play - plays.АртикльиВ английском языке перед существительными обычно употребляется артикль. Имеются два вида артикля: неопределенный и определенный. В ряде случаев артикль отсутствует.Неопределенный артикль ( а или ап )Употребляется, когда говорится о предмете или понятии, которые контекстом или ситуацией не конкретизируются или названы в речи впервые.Форма а употребляется перед существительными, начинающимися с согласного звука, ап - перед гласными звуками.an ice-creaman apple an hourСравните: A family A house А сагНеопределенный артикль употребляется с нарицательными, исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в единственном числе.Сравните:I am a student. Я студент.We are students. Мы - студенты.Определенный артикль (the)Определенный артикль the употребляется в тех случаях, когда говорится об определенном, уже известном или раннее упомянутом в речи предмете или понятии. Определенный артикль употребляется также во всех случаях, когда предмет или понятие конкретизируются контекстом или ситуацией.Определенный артикль употребляется с существительными как в единственном, так и во множественном числе. Например:The book that you need is on the table. Книга, которая тебе нужна, лежит на столе.The books that you need are on the table. Книги, которые тебе нужны, лежат на столе.Сравните:This is a new book. Это новая книга (предмет называется и дается общая характеристика).This is the book that I want to read very much. Это книга, которую я очень хочу прочитать (подразумевается конкретная книга, выделенная из общей массы книг).Абстрактные и вещественные существительные обычно употребляются без артикля. Например:The price of gold is rising. Цена на золото повышается.Life is impossible without air. Жизнь невозможна без воздуха.В тех случаях, когда абстрактные и вещественные существительные употребляются в конкретном смысле или в конкретной ситуации и обозначают определенное количество или качество, перед ними ставится определенный артикль. Например:The gold of this ring is very old. Золото этого кольца очень старое.The air today is very cold. Воздух сегодня очень холодный.Без артикля употребляются Имена собственные:Имена людей и животных: Ben is my friend. Jerry is our dog.Названия городов: New York, London, St.PetersburgNB! The Hague ГaaraНазвания стран: Russia, Mexico, Brazil, Italy, Germany, ChinaNB! The Netherlands, the Congo, the UkraineNB! The United States of America (the USA), the United Kingdom of Great Britain (the UK), the People’s Republic of ChinaНазвания улиц: I live in St.Petersburg in Marata street. Я оюиву в Санкт- Петербурге, на улице Марата. James lives in New York City on the comer of Broadway and 72nd Street. Джеймс живет в Нью-Йорке на углу Бродвея и 72-й улицы.Существительные:Перед которыми стоит имя собственное или существительное в притяжательном падеже: Ben's family, my friend's houseПеред которым стоит притяжательное местоимение: ту family, Лк wife, their childrenПосле которого стоит количественное числительное в качестве определения: Open your books at page five, text two. Откройте ваши книги на пятой странице, второй текст.UNIT 2 PLACESUNIT GOALS In this unit you will ...TO START OFFCheck the words you know. Use your dictionary to find out about the words you don’t know.Look at the photograph. Read the text.Match the words in the box with things in the photograph. Use a dictionary to help you.Mugs handbag photocopier drawer Diary keys tissues briefcase Shelf (plural - shelves)Practise saying the words.DEVELOPING THE TOPIC In the officeLook at the photograph and read the conversation. Now work in groups of tree and practise a similar conversation.Work with a partner. Read the conversation. Try to remember the details.What do you remember?Take it in turns to ask and answer questions. One person closes his/her book. The other person looks at the photograph and asks questions. Example:Take it in turns to ask and answer questions about your classroom. One person closes his/her eyes. The other person asks questions.Work with a partner.Complete the conversations. A:your mug, Pete?B: Yes, it is. Why?A:borrow it for my coffee?B:it’s dirty.a clean one here. A: those tissues?B: Mine. Why?A:I_ one, please? Tve got an awful cold.B:. Help yourself.Work with a partner. Practise reading the conversations. Remember touse weak forms can [], could [] and I’m [] where necessary.GRAMMAR REFERENCE Present Simple (1)Read about Sylvie.П Complete the sentences. Example:- She works from Monday to Friday.Sheher job.She at work at 11.30in the evening.She on a mask.The Underground at 1 in the morning.Shetobed after breakfast.Ш Which is correct, 1 or 2 ?We use the present Simple to talk about things.we often do.we are doing now.IV 1. Find other Present Simple verbs in the article about Sylvie.Complete this sentence. We make the Present Simple of he/she/it with verb + (e).Grammar exercisesFill in the blanks with the correct form.Choose do or does to fill in the blanks.Complete the sentences with the positive or negative form of the Present Simple.Alice is a businesswoman. She (live) (1)in Kent and (travel) (2)to London every weekday on the 8 am train. She (not/work) (3)at the weekend. She (not/ like) (4)the journey because the train is very busy. Whenshe (arrive) (5)at work she (open) (6)her letters and (make) (7)phone calls. At lunchtime she (have) (8). a sandwich in the office and(read) (9) the newspaper. She (love) (10) her job because she(meet) (11)a lot of different people.She (finish) (12)work at five o’clock and she usually (get) (13) home at about half past six. After dinner she (watch) (14)television or(do) (15)some housework.Make questions with these words. Example:Where Alice / live?Where does Alice live?Alice / work in London?Does Alice work in London?Answer the questions. Use the example:Where does Alice Live?She lives in Kent.Does Alice work in London?Yes, she does.LANGUAGE FOCUS 1 I Look at the pictures of Robert, Sylvie’s son.Use the pictures and verbs to make sentences about him. Example:He lives in London.Work with a partner. Talk about a person you know. What does he/she doevery day?Work with a partner.Practise reading these questions about Sylvie:Ask and answer questions about Sylvie. Use these words.#What does Sylvie do?When does the Underground stop at night?How does she travel to work?4 Where does she live?5 Why does she get up after two hours on Saturdays?At 1 am.Because she wants to sleep at night.In London, with her son and his wife.She’s a cleaner on the London Underground.On the Underground.Match the questions in A with the answers in B.LANGUAGE FOCUS IICheck the words you know. Use your dictionary to find out about the words you don’t know.П Read the texts.Nikki Campbell does not work for a film company. She works for a fashion photographer.Nikki gets at 6 am - eats a sandwich - works for a fashion photographer goes to school by bus - speaks 2 languages - loves football - likes fishing.Antoine de Caunes works for a French newspaper - lives in London - gets up early - drinks beer for breakfast - speaks very good English - lives with his mother - likes cycling and cooking.Complete the sentence.With he/she/it» we make the Present Simple negative with does not + verb.Work with a partner. A journalist interviewed Nikki and Antoine about their lives. Read his notes on the right. What are the journalist’s mistakes?Example:Nikki does not get at 6 am. She gets at 7.Read these answers to questions about Antoine and Nikki. Make questions for them. Example:Why does Nikki go to school on foot?Because the school is very near her house.SKILLS Reading and speakingI Read the texts.П Try to answer the questions. Consult the teacher or your fellow-students in case you are not sure about the answer.How many stations are there on the London Underground?2473150How many bones are there in your body?20650 760What number is the Latin word system?70 177How much of the water on the earth is ice?20%75% 90%How often does your skin change?every 6 weeks every 6 months every 6 yearsHow many kilometres is it to the centre of the earth?100030006300How many times does your heart beat a minute? 1000 times a minute10-20 times a minute 70-80 times a minuteHow many active volcanoes are here under the sea? 80 850 noneNot many people know that....Work with your partner. Are these sentences. True (T) or False (F)?There are rats on the tracks of the London Underground.The smallest bone in your body is in your ear.All over the world it rains for 60 days every days.In one month our nails grow 3 m.Our eyes move twenty times an hour.GRAMMAR REFERENCEWriting: Combining sentencesComplete the table.Subject PronounsObject PronounsPossessive PronounsIMyWeUsYouYouSheHerHeHimItItTheyTheirGrammar exercisesReplace the underlined words with an object pronoun or possessive pronoun.This is Lucy’s car. It’s her car.This is my mother. I phone mv mother in the evenings.Are these your trainers?These are your CDs and my CDs. They’re our CDs.This is my handbag. Do you like mv new handbag?Complete the sentences with and or but. Examples:I’m Italian and live in Venice.I’m Brazilian but I don’t like football.Read the text about Mica ParisMica is a singer. She lives in north London with her daughter, Monet. She is married. ? She is separated from her husband. Mica’s got a BMW. ? She drives the BMW to the recording studio. She likes clothes. ? She spends a lot of money on clothes. Mica admires Nelson Mandela. ? She thinks Nelson Mandela is a great man.Join the sentences with and or but.Replace the underlined words with an object pronoun or subject pronoun.1. Read the text.2. Complete the sentences with the prepositions in the box.in at with to by from onI live (1) in Oxford but I come (2)Sydney, Australia. I’m married(3)an Englishwoman. I usually get up (4)_six o’clock but (5) Sundays I stay in bed until ten o’clock. At the moment I’m living (6)myself because my wife is (7)(8)her sister, I usually go(9)work (10)foot but I go (11)bus (12)the winter. I sometimes work (13) home, too. (14) theweekend I go (15)the theatre or listen (16) music.Грамматический комментарий Местоимение itМестоимение it употребляется в английском языке в четырех разных функциях:1. Личное местоимение. Личное местоимение it заменяет упомянутое раньше неодушевленное существительное и переводится на русский язык в зависимости от грамматического рода соответствующего русского существительного. Если it выполняет функцию подлежащего, оно переводится местоимениями он, она, оно, они в именительном падеже. Например:Where is my pipe?Где моя трубка?It is on the desk.Она на письменном столе.I saw it on the desk a couple of minutesНесколько минут назад яagoвидел ее на столеWhere is your suitcase?Г де ваш чемодан?It is in the closet.Он в стенном шкафу.I haven’t seen itЯ его не видел.Where is Vera’s letter?Где Верино письмо?It is on the sofa.Оно на диване.I can’t find it.Я не могу его найтиWhere is my watch?Где мои часы?It is on the bookshelf.Они на книжной полке.I haven’t seen it.Я их не видел.Указательное местоимение. It в функции указательного местоимения может употребляться в качестве подлежащего или дополнения. В обоих случаях указательное местоимение it переводится на русский язык словом «это». Например:It is a magazine.Это журнал.I know it.Я это знаю.I’m going to do it.Я это сделаю.Формальное (безличное) подлежащее (при переводе на русский язык опускается). В функции формального подлежащего it употребляется в следующих случаях:- Явления природы, погода, время, расстояние. Например:It is spring now.Сейчас весна.It is warm here.Здесь тепло.It is dark.Темно.It’s far away from here to York.Отсюда далеко до Йорка- Подлежащее выражено инфинитивом, герундием или придаточным предложением. Например:It is dangerous to drive so fast. Опасно ездить на машине так быстро.It was interesting to talk to him. Было интересно с ним поговорить.It’s no use telling him about it. Бесполезно говорить ему об этом.Усилительное it. В этих случаях it обычно переводится словами именно, это, как раз. В английском языке подлежащее, дополнение или обстоятельство могут быть выделены употреблением сложноподчиненного предложения с конструкцией it is...that. Например:It was yesterday that I met John at a concert.ШКак раз вчера я встретил Джона на концерте.It was in Boston that I ran into my old friend.Именно в Бостоне я случайно встретил старого друга.It is in this scientific journal that you will find the necessary information.Именно в этом научном журнале вы найдете нужную информацию.SOME - ANYВ английском языке some и any употребляются перед существительным, обозначая неопредленное или небольшое количество предметов или вещества. В названной функции some и any часто не переводятся.Some употребляется 1) в утвердительных предложениях, 2) в вопросах, начинающихся с вопросительных слов where, when, how...,3) в вопросах, выражающих просьбу или предложение. Например:Give me some tea. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, чаю.You should add some salt to the potato salad. Вам следовало бы добавить соли к картофельному салату.Where can I get some hot water? Где я могу взять горячей воды?Could I have some more coffee? Можно еще кофе?Any употребляется: 1) в отрицательных предложениях и 2) в ряде вопросительных предложений (в т.н. «общих вопросах»). Например:I haven’t taken any English books. Я не взял с собой (никаких) английских книг.Have you bought any sugar. Вы купили сахар?NB! В английском отрицательном предложении употребляется только одно отрицание!Present SimpleВремя Present Simple (простое настоящее время) употребляется для выражения:Обычного, повторяющегося действия в настоящемI drive to work every day. Я езжу на работу на машине каждыйдень.Относящегося к настоящему времени в широком смысле словаI work as a teacher. Я работаю учителем.Общеизвестных истинThe Earth rotates round the Sun. Земля вращается вокруг солнца.Будущего действия с глаголами движения come, go, leave, start, arriveThe train starts in half an hour.Форма Present Simple образуется от инфинитива глагола без частицы to. В третьем лице единственного числа прибавляется окончание -s. Например:Не writes letters every day. Он пишет письма каждый день.Отрицательная и вопросительная форма Present Simple образуется при помощи формы Present Simple вспомогательного глагола to do и инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to:Do you get up very early? Вы рано встаете? - No, I don’t. НетWhen do you start your working day? Когда начинается ваш рабочий день?I don’t want to go to the concert. Я не хочу идти на концерт.UNIT 3 HAVE A BREAKUNIT GOALS In this unit you will ...TO START OFFCheck the words you know. Use your dictionary to find out about the words you don’t know.Read the text.Ш Look at the menu. Luke is going on holiday. He’s at the airport and he wants to have a snack.MenuFoodDrinksSandwichRollSaladHam2.102.003.15Tea1.40 a potCheese2.252.053.4065 p a cupChicken2.502.303.50Coffee1.70 a pot80 p a cupSoup of the day2.15Hot chocolate1.30Biscuits95p a packetOrange juice1.50 a glassCakes80p each chocolate (lemon) fruitCola1.20 a large glass90 p a small glassYoghurt85 p natural /fruitMineral water75p a bottleCrisps75p a packetPractise the conversation,1. Practise saying the prices. Example:A cup of tea is 65p.Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask and answer questions. Example:A: How much is a ham roll and small coffee? B: 2.90LANGUAGE FOCUS I I What does Luke have for lunch?Would you like a biscuit? (countable)Would you like some mineral water? (uncountable) But a bottle of water (countable)Ed like some cheese (uncountable)But a piece of cheese (countable!Г d like a sandwich (countable)DEVELOPING THE TOPICRead the conversation. Put the sentences in the correct order.Work with a partner.Practise reading the conversation.Now in groups of three act out a similar conversation using the words denoting food and drinks.LANGUAGE FOCUS IIWe often use one or ones so that we don’t repeat the noun. A: Would you like a glass of cola?B: Yes, a small one, please.A: Would you like some crisps?B: Yes, plain ones, please.Jeff What do you want? Jill: A roll, I think.Jeff Chicken?Jill: No, , please. What about you?Jeffa ham sandwich and a strawberry yoghurt.Assistant: Would you like something to drink?Jeff Nothing thanks. Or have they got any mineral water?Assistant: Of course. Would you like to pay altogether?Jeff Yes, that’s fine. How much is it?Assistant: 7.05FOLLOWUP I Work with a partner.What do you want to eat?П Take it in turns to ask and answer questions. Use one/ones in your answers.Example:Do you wantA biscuit?A:Would you likeSome crisps?Take it in turns to be the customer and the assistant. Order things from the menu. Example:Assistant: Can I help you? Would you like a / some .... ?Customer: Yes, I’d like a/ some ....I’ll have a / some ...., please.Assistant: Here you are.Customer: How much is that, please?Assistant: That’saltogether.GRAMMAR REFERENCEPresent Simple (2) : Do you ever..?I Read the questions and answer them .Do you drink tea or coffee?Do you like foreign food?When do you have your main meal?Do you drink beer with your meals?Do you ever eat bacon and eggs for breakfast?A: I don’t have breakfast - there isn’t time. But we have bacon and eggs on Sundays.B; No, I don’t. I like wine or water with meals. But I drink beer when I go to the pub.C: Both. I drink coffee in the mornings to ake me up and I have a cup of tea in the afternoons.D: Yes, I do. I love it, I cook Italian and Thai food at home.E: In the evenings, at 7, I don’t eat a lot at lunch time - just a sandwich and some soup.Grammar exercisesFill in the blanks.Circle the word that doesn’t belong.HI Complete the table.Look at the picture. Read the explanation. Complete the conversation.1. Read the text about Juan.Juan is Spanish. He’s studying English at a school in London. He wants to have a room in a house near his school. He telephones Mrs Lee.Complete their conversation.Mrs Lee: Where do you come from?Juan: Barcelona, in Spain.Mrs Lee:like cats?Juan: Yes,, but not dogs.Mrs Lee:for breakfast?Juan: Coffee and toast.Complete Juan’s questions and Mrs Lee’s answers.1) Juan: Do you live near the school?Mrs Lee: Yes, very near. It’s five minutes on foot.Juan: any children,Mrs Lee: Yes, I. A boy of twelve and a girl of four.Juan: Spanish?Mrs Lee: No, I. Only French.This is letter from Juan to his English teacher in Spain. Read the letter and complete it with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use the contracted form where possible.Dear Sam,This term I (stay (1) Im staying with a family in London. Mrs Lee_(be) (2)a teacher and Mr Lee (be)(3)a writer. They (have got) (4)two children. The family(be) (5) very nice. I (watch) (6)TVwith them in the evenings, but I (not/ understand) (7) a word! Englishpeople (speak) (8) very fast.The English class here (be) (9) good. This week we (work) (10)hard because there are exams but we (not/ usually/ work) (11)a lot. The lessons (start) (12)at 9 and they (finish) (13)atThe teacher (be) (14)young and (speak) (15)Spanish . We sometimes (go)(16)for a drink in the evening.How (be) (17)you? Write soon. Love, Juan.DEVELOPING THE TOPICI Sergey is a Russian journalist. He’s interviewing Peter about British eatinghabits because he wants to write a newspaper article, t. Read Sergey’s questions (1-5)A: Do you drink tea? [ ] B: yes, I do [ ]A: Do they eat eggs? [ ] B: No, they don’t. []When do you have your main meal?Note:A: Do you ever eat foreign food?B: Yes, I love itMatch Sergey’s questions with Peter’s answers .Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask and answer questionsabout Peter.1Example: have beacon and eggs for breakfast?A: Does Peter (ever) have beacon and eggs for breakfast?B: No, he doesn’t in the week, but he does on Sundays.Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask Sergey’s questions in the previous exercise . Answer for yourself.Example:A: Do you like foreign food?B: Yes, I like Indian food. OR No, I don’t.5. How often does Peter do things?0%t i100%neverisometimes1usuallyalwaysHe usually has bacon and eggs on Sundays.Grammar exercisesComplete the following sentences.I drink coffee in the mornings, and Ihave a cup of teain the afternoons.Icook Italian and Thai food at home.Ieat a lot at lunchtime.Idrink beer when I go to the pub.I don’thave breakfast. But wehave bacon and eggson Sundays.Complete these sentences with before or after.The adverbs (always, usually, sometimes, never) come the mainverb.The adverbs usually and always comedon’t.This is part of Sergey’s article about British people. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.British people (not/ usually/eat) (1) don’t usually eat a cooked breakfast inthe week because they (not/have) (2) time. A lot of people also (think)(3)a cooked breakfast is bad for you. They (usually/have) (4)their main meal in the evenings. They (cook) (5)typically British foodbut hey also (eat) (6)other food; pasts, pizza and rice dishes. They(usually/drink) (7)beer in the pub but at home they (sometimes/have)(8)wine with their meals.Write about eating habits in your country.Work in groups. Act out a conversation discussing eating habits in different countries.You are writing an article about Sergey’s life.Make questions to ask him. Example: What time / wake up? What time do you wake up?Write at least eight sentences about Sergey.Example: He wakes up early, at five o’clock..Work with your partner. Act out a similar interview.SKILLS SpeakingWhat do you do every morning?Make a list. Use always, never, usually and sometimes.Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask and answer questions about your morning routines.Imagine you are a famous person.Make a list f things you do every day. Examples:get up at...drink champagne...eat... for breakfasthave lunch withWork with a partner. Interview each other about your routines.Examples:A: What time do you get up?В: I get up at 7.Write a letter to a journalist about a day in your life. Can the class guess who you are? Begin your letter like this:16th September Dear Mr Smith,This is a typical day. I get up at....тSocial EnglishMoney and ShoppingI Match the words with the prices.П Practise saying the words. Example: a packet of chewing gumШ Which of the things in the box go with the words in the exercise above?Examples: a bar of chocolate, a packet of cigarettes Chocolate cigarettes tomatoes crisps Mineral water tissues cake beer Onions sugar orange juiceMake a shopping list of six things from Exercise III.Work with a partner. Buy the things from your list. Ask how much theyare. Take it in turns to be the shop assistant and customer. Example:A: IM like a ... of..., please.B: That’s ..., please.A: Here you are.B: Thank you.Грамматический комментарий Present SimpleФорма Present Simple употребляется для выражениядействия, совершающегося в момент речи, с глаголами, которые не употребляются в длительном времени:I see George at the window. Я вижу Джорджа у окна.Для передачи инструкций:First you cross the street, then you turn left. Сначала перейдите улицу, затем сверните налево.Для передачи последовательности действий, быстро сменяющих друг друга (например, в спортивных комментариях):- Thomson gathers the ball, bamboozles the defence and passes to Smith who makes no mistakes. Томсон перехватывает мяч, прорывает оборону и передает его Смиту, который играет безошибочно.UNIT 4 WORLD AROUND USUNIT GOALS In this unit you will...TO START OFFCheck the words you know. Use your dictionary to find out about the words you don’t know.Look at the photographs. Read the text.Answer these question. Provide arguments to support your idea.Which place do you like best - A or B? Why?DEVELOPING THE TOPIC The countryMatch the words in the box with the things in the photographs. Use a dictionary to help you.Flowers mountain wood path gate Village tree field sheep fishingThink and discuss with your partner: which is bigger?a stream or a river?a hill or a mountain?a wood or a forest?a town or a village?- a sheep or a lamb?Work with a partner. Take it in turns to talk about the photographs.Use the adjectives in the box and others you know.Quiet noisy pretty relaxing boringMatch the verbs in A with the nouns in B.AВ1 crossa) a swim2 gob) the tent3 get offc) a photograph4 go ford) the bridge5 takee) asleep6 put upf) the bike7 fallg) camping5. Speak on the subject. Tell a sexercise and the verbs in the box. Begin this way:I wanted to go camping for the weekend. First... Then ... After that....Want set off ride take decide have steal wake up be (lost) start goWork in groups of three. Make a list of words to describe countryside. Compare your words and choose the best six.FOLLOWUPVUI Read about the country.The country is quiet and green with villages where people from towns relax and people from the country work hard in the fieldsIX Now write about towns. Use your words from Exercise 4b. Begin: Towns are ....LANGUAGE FOCUS IJane is planning her day off Read Jane's conversation with her friend.Speak about your plans. Answer the question: What are your plans? Example:I’m going to phone John.I’m just going to wash my hair.I’m not going to watch YV. I’m going to take Rex out.I’m going to join a health club next week.П Practise saying the sentences.Work with a partner.Take it in turns to ask and answer questions.A: What’s she going to do?В: (She’s going to) paint the ceiling.A: Is she going to paint the wall?B: No (she isn’t). She’s going to paint the ceiling.GRAMMAR REFERENCE IFuture plans: going toWith the verb go we can use the Present Continuous to talk about our future plans.I’m going to Brazil tomorrow. NOT I’m going to go to Brazil tomorrow.Joe’s going on holidays tomorrow. Complete the sentences.A: Wherefor her holiday?В: То .А:by train?В: No, у ____ .А:stay in a hotel?В: No, she’s going.A: What’s she going to do on the beach?B:.Grammar exercisesMake conversations with the words. Use the positive or question forms of going to.A: They / have a party tomorrow.B: Who / they / invite?A: The Browns.A: They ’re going to have a party tomorrow.B: Who are they going to invite?A: I / get married next year.B: Who /you / marry?A: Susan.A; They/ buy a new car tomorrow.В: Which car / they / buy?A: A Toyota, I think.A: He / study Japanese at university.B: Why/ he study Japanese?A: He wants to go and teach in Japan.A: We / travel round the world next year.B: Which countries / you / visit?A: The United States, Australia and Indonesia.A: I / watch a video this evening.B: Which video / you watch?A: Summer Holiday.DEVELOPING THE TOPICI Choose a holiday for yourself. Make a list of six things for your rucksack.. П Work with a partner. Look at his/her list. Take in turns to ask and answer questions. Example:A: Are you going to sunbathe?B: Yes, I am. // No, I’m not.Ш Work with a partner. Act out a conversation discussing your plans for your holidays.GRAMMAR REFERENCE II When, if and going toRead the texts about Nick and Alex.Complete the sentences.Nick is in prison.Whenhere next year, I’m going to__ my friends andto have a party. Ten Гшlook for a job.Alex is taking his driving test.If Imy driving test, I’m going tomy brother’s car. I’mbuy a car because I haven’t got enough money.Answer these questions.Is Nick going to leave prison next year?Is Alex going to pass his test?Are they talking about the prison or future?What verb form do we use after when and if?Grammar exercisesInsert if or when.Make one sentence out of two using if or when.HI Complete the sentences using Present or Future Simple tenses.Complete the sentences with if or when. Use the words in brackets and the correct form of the verb. Example:We are going to have a picnic if /when (it be a nice day tomorrow).We are going to have a picnic if it’s a nice day tomorrow.He’s going to get married if/ when (to be 30).She’s going to New York this summer if /when (she have enough money).If / when (I finish at university) next year, I’m going to work in the bank.Axe you going to have private lessons if / when (you not do very well in your exams)?What’s she going to do if /when (she get home)?Complete the sentences with (not) going to or the Present Simple of the verbs in brackets. Underline if or when.I (not /pay) ‘m not going to pay for your holiday if / when you (fail) fail your exams.If / When I (leave)school, I (not / work) in my father’s business. I want to work in a bank.I (not / take ) the children out if / when it (rain)tomorrow.They (phone)if/whenthey (be)ready.Just wait five minutes. I (make)your dinner if / when I (finish) my work.Work with a partner. Talk about yourselves and your plan for the nearest future. Use if and when.SKILLS Reading and speakingI Read the textI was in Paradise when I lived in Vanuatu. Look at the map and you’ll see a group a tiny islands in the Pacific Ocean. Look into my thoughts and we’ll see memories of those islands - of the wind in the palm trees, the blue sea and sky, the hot white sandy beaches and green mountains. I remember picnics on the beach and the fire-red sun going down over the sea in the evening . I remember people, too, kind people, who always smiled and worked hard. I remember visiting schools, going on foot up and down mountains or by boat to other islands.was one of ten thousand lucky people who lived in Port Vila, the capital of Vanuatu. Life there was warm, friendly and slow. We played sports slowly, sailed slowly to other islands, ate delicious seafood slowly in French restaurants and cooked meat very slowly on stones outside.But there were problems, too. Once I was very ill. There were hurricanes which blew down houses. There was a plane which crashed just after it took off. At once an earthquake aimed my car across the road.But now I’m back in cold, grey Britain I don’t remember the bad things. I can taste the sweetness of the fruit. I can smell the freshness of the flowers. I can hear the wind in the trees. And when I remember the colour and the sunlight, I’m in Paradise again.Imagine you are there. What can you hear? What can you smell? What can you taste? How do you feel?Paradise (n) tiny (adj) thoughts (n) Memory (n) lucky (adj) earthquake (n)The words in the box are taken from Brian’s article about Vanuatu. Use a dictionary to check the meaning.Work with a partner.Do you think Brian was happy in Vanuatu? Give reasons to support your point of view.Ask and answer the questions.What can you say about Vanuatu?Where is it?What’s the capital city?How many people live there?What’s the weather like?How did Brian get to work?What do you think his job was?What did he like eating in restaurants?He remembers four bad things. What are they?In England, which two things take Brian back to Paradise?What colours does Brian use for:the sea and the sky? 2) The sand? 3) the mountains? 4) the sun?Britain?Who or what...is sandy? 2) are kind and hardworking? 3) is slow? 4) is delicious? 5) is cold? 6) is sweet? 7) are fresh?Imagine we’re staying in Vanuatu. Write a postcard to a friend. Begin: Dear,Here we are in Vanuatu. It’s beautiful. The sea and the sky are very blueand...FOLLOWUPI Read the extract from the tourist brochure about Darjeeling.A Daijeeling is in north East India, near Tibet. It is about 2,000 metres above sea level in the foothills of the Himalayas.В Darjeeling is famous for its tea and the city is surrounded by tea plantations and forests. It is a beautiful town with a cool climate. It is called the City of Bells because the bells in its Buddhist temples ring all day.C There are a lot of things for visitors to do. There is a zoo, a racecourse, a natural history museums, where Tibetans in their colourful clothes come to buy and sell.П Which paragraphs answer these questions?What is Darjeeling famous for ?What can visitors do there?Where is Darjeeling? __Think of a place you have visited or would like to visit. Make notes about it. Use the following questions as a plan:Where is it?What’s famous for?What’s it like? (It is small / noisy / cold?)What’s the weather like? (I t is wet / hot / cold? )What can people visit?Write three short paragraphs about the place for the tourist brochure.Work in small groups. Act as if you were travel agents and customers. Advertise some places gor having wonderful holidays. Ask detailed questions.SOCIAL ENGLISHAt a hotelI Read the sentences showing what you can do at a hotel.1 .You can have lunch in your room.1. You can’t leave your cat here.Guests can’t go into that room.2.П What other things can and can’t you do in a hotel? Add 3-5 sentences.IllYou’re going to telephone a hotel receptionist.I. Make questions with these words. Example:How far/the hotel/from the airport?How far is the hotel from the airport?How much / a double room with a shower?(I / pay) extra for the children?(serve) dinner in the hotel?What time / breakfast?You are calling the Regency Hotel. Take notes to answer the questions in the previous exercise. Example:A: How far is the hotel from the airport?B: Five minutes by taxi.Work with a partner. Compare your answers.Complete the sentences.I help you?you give me some information, please?You get the hotel bus.you tell me the cost of a double room with shower?Youhave children in a double room. ... or yougive me your credit card number. I book a room for you now?Wethink about it.LANGUAGE FOCUS IIAsking for permission• OfferingCan/could I pay by credit card?Shall I book a room for you?• Giving permission• Decisions at the moment of speakingYou can/can’t pay by credit cardWe’ll think about it.I Work with a partner. Take it in turns to be A and B. Practise these sentences. Example:The telephone’s ringing.A: Decide to answer it.B: Thank your partner.А: Г11 answer it.B: Thanks.A: You haven’t got a dictionary. Ask В to lend you one.B: Say “yes” or “no”.A: You’re hot. You want to open the window. Ask В if it’s OK.B: Say “yes” or “no”.A: You’re very thirsty.B: Offer to get a drink.A: Your bag is very heavy.B: Offer to carry it.Г pa мм этический комментарийПридаточные времени и условияПридаточные предложения времени отвечают на вопросы when? Когда? Since when? С каких пор? How long? Как долго? Они соединяются с главным предложением союзами when, whenever, while, as, after, before, till/until, as soon as, as long as, since, by the time (that) :В придаточных предложениях времени будущее время не употребляется: Future Simple заменяется Present Simple, Future Continuous - Present Continuous Future Perfect - Present Perfect:The manager will ring you up when he comes. Заведующий позвонит вам, когда придет.As soon as we receive your telegram, we shall let him know. Как только мы получим вашу телеграмму, мы сразу сообщим ему.Придаточные предложения условия соединяются с главным предложением союзами if если, unless если..не, provided (that), on condition (that) при условии если, при условии что, supposing (that) suppose (that) предположим (что):В условных предложениях глагол в придаточном предложении (условии) употребляется в Present Simple, а в главном предложении в Future Simple. В соответствующих русских предложениях будущее время употребляется как в главном, так и в придаточном предложении:If the weather is fine tomorrow, we shall go to the country. Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город.Г11 give you the book on condition that you return it next week. Я дам вам эту книгу при условии, что вы вернете ее на следующей неделе.Present Continuous в роли будущего времениThe Present Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения будущего действия, главным образом, с глаголами движения come, go, leave, start, arrive:They are leaving in a few days. Они уезжают через несколько дней.Не is arriving on Monday. Он приезжает в понедельник.The Past Continuous Tense употребляется для выражени будущего действия, которое происходит согласно личным планам говорящего:Гт playing tennis on Sunday. В воскресенье я играю в теннис.тShe’s having a party tomorrow. Завтра она устраивает вечеринкуДля выражения намерения совершить действие или уверенности в его совершении в будущем наряду с Present Continuous часто употребляется Present Continuous от глагола to go в сочетании с инфинитивом: lam going имеет в этом случае значение собираюсь, намерен:Гш going to learn French next year. Я собираюсь изучать французский в будущем годуНе is going to spend his summer in Spain. Он собирается провести летние каникулы в Испании.UNITS FOODUNIT GOALSIn this unit you will...TO START OFFI Check the words you know. Use your dictionary to find out about the words you don’t know.П Read the text about Mr Motivator.Mr Motivator is a TV fitness teacher in Britain.He lives on fish and chicken and eats them with rice and peas. He also eats steak with cream and brandy. He drinks orange juice and also Guinness mixed with milk and eggs.Answer the question on the text.Which of Mr Motivator favourite foods is not in the fridge?2. Practise saying the words.Butter garlic jam grapes melon carrots potatoesMushrooms onions wine bread beefburgersPractise the conversation1. Make five lists of the food: 1) Fruit; 2) Vegetables; 3) Meat; 4) Drinks;Other.2. Work with your partner. Read his list. Mark the words which are countable.(In some dictionaries it says C for countable and U for uncountable.)DEVELOPING THE TOPICRead the conversations. Which word is correct?A: Would you like a / some banana?B: Yes, please, I’d love one / some.A: Would you like a / some bananas?B: No, thanks. I never eat a banana/ bananas.LANGUAGE FOCUS IRememberA grape and some grapes (countable)Some butter (uncountable) NOT a butter or some butters NoteA: Would you like some grapes? (some = [] )B: I’d love some ( some = [])Work with a partner. Which is the food in the previous exercise do youeat?NeverSometimesEvery dayMe12Work in groups of three.Ask two other people and complete the table for them. Example:A: Do you ever eat fish / bananas? (NOT the fish / bananas)B: Never / Sometimes I Every daySpeak about the most popular and unpopular food in the class? Examples: A lot of people in the class eat.... Some people eat.... No one eats ....Which food do you think people from your class eat? Make a list.FOLLOW UPA meal to rememberSpeak about a meal you remember.Where was it? When? Was it very good or very bad?What did you eat? Make a list of the food.Work with a partner and talk about your meals (everyday meals, festive dinner, a picnic meal, etc).GRAMMAR REFERENCE A, some and any I Make three lists of the words.There’s a / anThere are someThere’s someEggSpoonsToastП Work with a partner. Compare your answers.П1 1.Pronounce these words in a sentence - a, an, some, there are.2. Mark the stressed syllable in words of more than one syllable. Example:butter,Grammar exercisesLook at the picture. What is on the table?1 .Complete the sentences with one of the words in the box.Jam forks rice glass mushrooms mugjThere isn’t a or a.There isn’t anyor any.There aren’t anyor any.Work with a partner. Ask questions about the picture. Use the words in the box and any other words you want. Examples:A: Is there a cup of tea on the table?B: No, there isn’t.A: Is there any coffee?B: Yes, there is.A: Are there any bananas?B: No, there aren’t.Tissues clock beer cheese white bread shelves Wine tomatoes chairs bag grapes coat booksFill in the blanks with a, some, any, no.Make two lists: 1) Countables (C); 2) Uncountables (U) with words from the box.Cheese apple biscuit egg butter garlic milk Grape jam carrot bread melon banana sugarVH[ A, some or any? Underline the correct answer.Would you like a /some milk in your coffee?Have you got a / some pen, please?I don’t want some / any cheese on my pasts.I haven’t got some / any money on me.H’s going to the library for a / some books.Have you got some / any children?I can’t see a / any bread in the kitchen.Much, many and a lotChoose the correct words: How much or How many? Example:How much / How many apples do you want?How much / How many eggs are there in the fridge?How much / How many sugar have you got?How much / How many melons do you want?How much / How many rice is there?How much / How many people are there in the picture?How much / How many money have you got?How much / How many time does it take?How much or how many? Choose How much or how many to complete the questions.How many people were at the party?do you drink in the morning?have you listened to?have you bought?do these jeans cost?Work with a partner. Take it in turns to ask and answer questions. Examples:1 .A: Are there any letters?B: Yes, (there are).A: How many (are there)?В: Not many.2. A: Is there any toast?B: Yes, (there is).A: How much (is there)?B: A lot.Work with a partner.Read the texts.Student A: You want to make mushroom risotto for dinner tonight. Complete the sentences about the ing

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