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Сны и сновидения

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Код 72868
Дата создания 2014
Страниц 10
Источников 4
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Содержание

Contents
Introduction 3
The Theory of Dreams 4
Conclusion 9
Literature 10

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

Still there are many critics of the Zhang’s theory because of the recent studies on trauma, which suggest that when people go to sleep right after a traumatic experience that they are more likely to remember and be haunted by the trauma than to forget and overcome it in dream. It is easier for me to imagine that I go t sleep after the trauma and see it in my dream again and again and after that wake up even more exhausted and traumatized than before sleeping. So to my opinion it is not a good idea to sleep after a serious trauma.That is why it is preferable for traumatized people to stay awake and talking for several hours, even if they are exhausted, to prevent this traumatic memory consolidation from happening.Based on studies that revealed strong similarities between animals who are playing dead and people who are dreaming, this theory suggests that dreaming could be related to an ancient defense mechanism: tonic immobility, or playing dead. When you dream, your brain behaves much the way it does when you're awake, with a crucial difference: chemicals like dopamine associated with movement and body activation are completely shut down. This is similar to what happens to animals who undergo temporary paralysis to fool their enemies into thinking they've died. So it's possible that dreams began as a defense mechanism which our bodies retained — in a different form — as we evolved into creatures who no longer experienced tonic immobility.All of these theories have contributed to our understanding. All have limitations. No one theory gives us the complete picture. ConclusionSo according to the subject of our essay we described several points of view to the dreams.We dream a lot. Some of us dream approximately half of our life, so no one can say that it is unimportantto explore dreams.People were interested in dreams since ancient times, but their efforts to explain who we dream were not scientific. They used their imagination rather than scientific data. So there were many legends and prejudice about dreams especially about so called prophetic dreams.Freud was one of the first scientists who use scientific methods to explain dreams. He explored his own dreams and the dreams of his patients to build up a theory that in our dreams we see our wishes fulfilled.Nowadays there are much more scientific theories about the dreams. To explain this phenomenon scientists explore the activity of our brain. For example there is a theory that dreams are just randomly-generated stories our brain tells us and they have not any purpose. Or dreams help us to forget some traumatic experience. But none of these theories can be called quite satisfying.But whatever the underlying reasons for why dreams arise, the physiological and neurological mechanismsunderpinning the act of dreaming are, while still not entirely understood, gradually beginning to become clearer as modern research progresses.Many psychologists and scientists still cannot say for sure what the dreams are and why we dream. There is no consensus among the scientists. And if we consider all the time we spend in dreams the fact that the purposes and reasons of dreams still remain a mystery for researchers can be disappointing. However, it is important to consider that science is still unraveling the exact purpose and function of sleep itself.LiteratureFreud S. The interpretation of dreams. Psychology Today, 2013. 106 p.Hartman E. Why do we dream? Dreaming, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2006.J.A. Hobson and K.J. Friston; Waking and dreaming consciousness: Neurobiological and functional considerations. ProgNeurobiol. 2012 July; 98(1): 82–98Lohff David C. The Dream Directory: The Comprehensive Guide to Analysis and Interpretation. Courage Books, 2004. 320 p.

Список литературы [ всего 4]

Literature
1. Freud S. The interpretation of dreams. Psychology Today, 2013. 106 p.
2. Hartman E. Why do we dream? Dreaming, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2006.
3. J.A. Hobson and K.J. Friston; Waking and dreaming consciousness: Neurobiological and functional considerations. Prog Neurobiol. 2012 July; 98(1): 82–98
4. Lohff David C. The Dream Directory: The Comprehensive Guide to Analysis and Interpretation. Courage Books, 2004. 320 p.
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