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Политические отношения Ирак -Китай (3000 слов). Политика Китая с древности до наших дней (6000 слов).

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Код 70329
Дата создания 2013
Страниц 30
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The so-called "recipe" for the "Asian economic miracle" includes three mandatory components:
1. An effective national strategy of industrialization of the economy.
2. The establishment of export-oriented model of economic development.
3. Active attraction of foreign investment: capital, technology, advanced industrial equipment, automation industries.
The basic principles of economic systems of this kind focus on the following items:
1. The state economic regulation aimed at achieving the primary export growth in the private sector and small businesses.
2. The state of the market correction in the direction of conservation exports.
3. Adverse changes in the internal market must require state correction.
4. Preservation of state regulation and control in all extra-economic spheres on a background of economic liberalization.
The leaders of China note now, that China must use of instruments of monetary, fiscal and exchange rate policies of the state for the indispensable support macroeconomic stability and must stabilize own position in the global market for the introduction of restrictions and incentives to maintain the structure of exports.
Erupted in the past few years, the financial crisis, the basis of which were issues of trust and security for liabilities, as of now only strengthened the integration activity in both the regional and overall macroeconomic scale. Post-crisis recovery trend of the financial infrastructure of the world economy have inspired further deepening the processes of inter-regional economic cooperation. Such a reaction, a closer look reveals an adequate and quite natural, since the crisis itself from any point of view can not be attributed to the factors of stability and growth in a volatile market the vast majority of national economies makes the choice in favor of cooperation with its neighbors, and not to the world market as a whole. In other words - the choice is made in favor of stabilizing its economy, but not in favor of getting high profits, that is, the principle of "a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush." Experienced business executives and managers are well aware of the fact that during the crisis the overall level of economic risk fold increase, and the fore considerations saving positions.
Absolutely everything is the same at the post-crisis period, we can observe in the Asia-Pacific economic activity. There is a post-crisis restructuring, the implementation of which emerges a clear shift from distant to near macroeconomic interactions intraregional. The examples are especially are plentiful. Japan, as a result of having lost a significant part of the market crisis in the New and Old World, is trying to at least partially compensate for these losses by creating synergies with closer neighbors (countries Oceana, China, Malaysia). On the other hand, all of these last are also trying to take some stabilized efforts. Oceana consolidates the economic power of its subjects, and these combined with the comfort of points on the position of the interaction with the major economies in the post-crisis period shows relatively acceptable for its level of economic survival, giving a very positive example to their neighbors in the region. The last APEC summit in this painting of any other radical smears did not add clearly demonstrating that the vast majority of economic actors APR typical association of national economic power and consequently - the integration of economic interests. The Heads of State - Pacific members are well aware that the main challenge now - to survive the crisis recession with minimal damage to the economy. At the last APEC summit in Singapore, members of the Association adopted a joint declaration of abstinence from all forms of intra-regional protectionism until the onset of the state of relative macroeconomic stability. However, other forms of protectionism are also recognized as undesirable and limited in application. All quite aware of the fact that the crisis and post-crisis recovery - it's not the time to be inserted one another spoke in the wheel, because the problems and without it at all, and so lacking. Areas of investment, trade in goods and services must become truly free from erecting any artificial barriers.
Past The Doha in 2010 marked the beginning of the hearing the economic development of a package of measures to prevent and limit the use of protectionist measures and the development of macro-economic incentives that are inconsistent with any restriction on the freedom of trade. It is extremely interested (you can even say, as no one else) to the positive outcome of the Doha negotiations Asia-Pacific countries have consistent diplomacy of the summit and the adoption of its outcomes.
At the same time, not all is smooth and positive relations between the two largest economic entities in the region - China and the United States. Despite all possible pressure, China adheres to its favorable external economic economy exchange rate of RMB against the U.S. dollar, in order to maintain its global external positions and opportunities for further expansion. Having exhausted the possibilities to influence his counterpart in the region, the United States, in turn, fear boost economic expansion of Chinese goods in their own domestic market and crowding out domestic producers of goods, the cost of production (and the price), which is higher than the Chinese. It is clear that not enough public-spirited buyer in this situation will vote purse.
In the language of psychiatry, there is to be some economic ambivalence acting on the words of a free trade regardless of the region, within its own region of the U.S. to resort to protectionist economic policy of containment. Moreover, if the only thing left in the divergence of concepts, it would be so bad. The real trouble for the U.S. economy may become a thing of the very near future: thus limiting the export of China's foreign economic activity in the present, in the future, the U.S. can dig a hole of its own economy, because by doing so they are forcing China's increasingly close approach to the creation of the establishment of regional financial system, the American alternative. The displacement of the U.S. dollar from the region and replacing it with a new unit conversion (for example - the yuan) could be the beginning of the end of the dollarization of the global financial system, and then for the economy and the banking sector comes second act of the U.S. production of "global financial crisis", the director (and writer) which is known now.
Both regional and global consequences of a new center and the conversion of International Settlements, the American alternative, now no one can predict. The declared initially as a regional, a new financial system could quickly transform into a country's macroeconomic, and surpassing the U.S. dollar, euro and EU, and all other limited-convertible currency. Anyway, very cool and restrained China's response to the incessant requests, demands the preservation of America's exchange rate at present suggests the inevitability (and realistic) in the future, it is of such a scenario the global financial redistribution. And for the U.S. Federal Reserve that can only mean one thing: the ongoing efforts to pump the financial economy and restore liquidity in the very near future, can dramatically depreciate rapidly along with the very U.S. dollar since the days when the currency exchange rate determined by either its actual software from the real sector of the national economy, and, sorry, inflating the cheeks and promises of guarantees on financial summits, thank God, finally sank into oblivion. It may well be that the prints on the machine Fed USA Today paper titled "U.S. Dollar" tomorrow could lose a significant part of their face value because of the extremely unfavorable for the U.S. and quite possibly the confluence of the circumstances, which were above it.
To tell the truth, and it remains unclear to what is another scenario States can expect in such a situation. In recent decades, changing position of China in the global economy was determined, in fact, the two main factors of China Foreign Trade: the provision of TNK cheap labor and pegging the yuan to the dollar, and it's for anyone (including the U.S.) was not a secret. However, it lasted only as long as the collapsed system of mortgage lending by pulling a first entire national economy of the state, and then the rest of the world economy, tied to the U.S. dollar as it was tied to the yuan. In fact, what is now advocated by the United States in its economic dialogue with China, is none other than the very unsympathetic and unattractive attempt to save the old state of affairs and the old order, discredited in the last few years from top to bottom. The author of this study after graduation PRC leadership expresses its most sincere bewilderment - why, generally speaking, all that is now needed to China? What for?
Apparently, the answer to this question is only in the U.S., which, however, up to now have not been able to announce in this regard at least something sensible. Many political observers now say that China's attitude towards foreigners seriously changed over the past two millennia, and it is connected with a string of various historical reasons and events that have influenced China's foreign policy in relation to other foreign countries, as well as representatives of foreign states in the territory of China.
In fact, in China's history there have been periods are very long and lasted for centuries, when China had no foreign policy in general, and China did not wish to have any relations with foreigners.
Now, fortunately for China and for many of China's neighbors and trading partners, these times are gone, and these relationships strongly and significantly changed. Changed world politics and the global economy, and China is now himself is interested in the development and intensified expansion of new contacts around the world.
Especially noteworthy that period that occurred within China itself after the famous Cultural Revolution in the 60 - ies of the last century. If it was possible to assign a rating change occurred, the modern China, no doubt in my real changes in foreign policy worthy of as much as 5 points, and it's - the highest score of the activity in foreign policy and economic integration in the world deserves a modern China. The most important changes that took place after the denunciation and condemnation of the cult of Mao Tse Tung in China itself allowed his contemporary leadership to pay attention to all-round development of economic relations and trade integration with the countries that have been proven to China itself interesting and profitable. This crucial period is in its beginning to 1980 - 1990 years of the last century, and to some extent continues to this day. This also contributes to foreign policy and other countries interested in cooperation with China in economy, politics, culture or anything else. For example, the Iraq policy toward China, this contributes to a large extent, because Iraq itself is extremely interested in the inflow of Chinese investment to rebuild its war-ravaged 2003 - 2011's economy.
No doubt, such a position is concerned pump Iraq's foreign policy promotes contacts between Iraq and China. Of course, if you take the time in half a century (fifty years), in the first years of this period, it is not very noticeable, however, in the last 10 - 15 years old, and before the war with the United States, and especially after the Iraq war, strongly encouraged the development of relations with China being interested in them, especially from the economic point of view. Many political commentators and economic experts in both the Arab world and in China itself, rightly point out that the policy, which is held by China for the entire Middle East region, in fact is quite significant guarantor of the stability of the entire region.
On the other hand, pursued by most countries in the region as a policy in the sphere of development and in the economy helps to ensure that the impact of such a large and powerful nation like China, fully amplified, making the region opposed to Western Europe and the United States ... In principle, objective confirmation of these trends is the creation and during the last ten - fifteen years (from 1995 - 2010), a number of international organizations, regional scale, based on the principles of creating integration and mutual cooperation in the region in all spheres. All this is enough to radically alter the very positioning of Asian macro-region with respect to the expansionist policy of the West, which sometimes comes to military aggression and direct interference in the internal affairs of the countries of the region, and in this respect Iraq itself is no exception. Dynamics of change in China's influence over its foreign policy on the world stage can be traced almost to the end of the Second World War (the middle of the last century) to the present time, however, many scholars of Chinese Foreign Policy noted that in different periods of time, it differed significantly due to inconsistency is clearly excessive pragmatism. China remains true to its principles is a pragmatic foreign policy, and to date, however, for such a long period, she was able to gain valuable diplomatic flexibility, multiplied by the great Chinese leadership develop the ability to adapt to all the changes in the world, to all its crises, and find in them its the best way to go. These trends are highly significant in relation to China just as to its trading partners in Asia (in Iraq) and to the modern West.
Many economic studies and statistics on a macro-economic analysis in this and the Asian region appears a beautiful metaphor that for China to Iraq and its oil is one of the sources on which it relies to lubricate its giant economic machine.
This is true in China, not only in Iraq. The fact is that relatively recently, China became the largest importer of oil. These are today's facts, which means that all imports of oil increases, and so China is investing in oil and gas fields around the world a huge amount. For example, in 2011, these investments totaled $ 12 billion. China is forced to make such investments, as at present, 50% of oil imports come from the Middle East, China and this, in spite of the embargo on Iranian oil.
Overcome by the economic crisis and a chronic shortage of liquidity with the approval of the Western world looks at this more and more of the reinforcing bilateral bundle. All readily admit that even minor Chinese investment into the hands of Baghdad, as oil remains the main basis of the political and economic future of Iraq. China understands how serious it is now, because right now, at this moment Iraq is second only to Saudi Arabia, the largest oil producer in OPEC. It is financed by oil war and social programs of Baghdad. According to the estimates of Iraqi specialists and independent experts - geologists, oil fields, pipelines and cleaning businesses need every year in investments denominated in a huge amount of 30 billion dollars. Only when the possibility of such invest - the projects future oil production in Iraq will reach a level that will allow it to become one of the leading suppliers of this important raw material.
There is another subtle and piquant moment in relations between Beijing and Baghdad. It is - like two friends who have found each other after a long and a long search. China aims to take in Iraq niche that is now left to others - it is no secret that many foreign companies have shown little enthusiasm for the line of Baghdad. The first is - the problem of security. The object of the next terrorist attack could be in Iraq now, anyone and anything. Why take such a risk? So some of them, such as the Norwegian company "Stot-Oil" left Iraq and roll there own business. And as you know - a holy place is never empty. Form a vacuum successfully fills China. According to a representative of the Ministry of the Iraqi oil industry, "the Chinese people are simple and practical. They do not interfere in politics and religion. They just work, eat and sleep. " Roughly speaking, China is now Iraq - is "what we need!"
As long as there is no clarity in the future intentions of both. "Ordinary people", of course, is sleeping, but it's actually not as simple as it wants to see his new Arab friends, but because he was sleeping in box-eye and the ear-in box, perfect seeing and hearing everything that is going on.
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