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Описание особенностей быта англичан через анализ английских народных сказок. Вся работа выполнена на английском языке.
Дата защиты - февраль 2016г. Место защиты - городская научно-практическая конференция. Работа отмечена грамотой - за оригинальность темы исследования ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. The theoretical basis of studying British way of life and English folk tales……………………….....................................................................
1.1. Specific features of the English folk tales…………………………... 5
1.2. Specific features of the British way of life ……………………......... 7
Chapter 2. The reflection of the national British way of life in the English folk tales……………………………………………………………………
2.1. The description of the British traditional way of life in English folk tales ………………………………………………………………………..
2.2. The description of the British traditional house in English folk tales…………………………………………………………………………
The Reference List………………………………………………………….. 17
The oldest forms of fairy tales were originally intended for adults and children. These early folk tales were passed down orally from generation to generation and later became increasingly associated with children as their audience. Their primary purposes are to amuse and to convey cultural information that influences behavior (mountains can be dangerous places to travel alone, unselfish behavior benefits the community and is rewarded, do as your parents tell you and all will be well). Besides this, fairy tales can tell us a lot about person’s life, cultural life of nation.
The actuality of chosen theme is connected with the fact that nowadays English language is an international language of communication. Just the learning of English grammar is not enough to know the language in a full way. It is necessary to know vocabulary and especially the way of life of the native speakers. That is why the reading of English literature in original is the most important aspect in an effective education. We can learn a lot about way of people’s life, culture through the reading of fairy tales.
The object of our project is national specific features of life-style of English people reflected in English folk tales.
Фрагмент работы для ознакомления
The most general classification was suggested by V. F. Miller. It is a dividing into magic tales, everyday tales, and tales about animals (Miller 2007). This classification coincides with the mythological classification (mythic, about animals, everyday tales).In 1924 a book by Professor P. M. Volkov was published. The professor distinguished that the tale had fifteen topics. They are:About innocent persecutorsAbout foolish heroAbout three brothersAbout snake-fightersAbout finding bridesAbout wise virginAbout implacable and spell-boundAbout talisman’s ownerAbout wonderful presents’ owner About an unfaithful wife, e.t.c. [Volkov 2005: 36]. A lot of scientists suggest their own variants of classification. But in our research we base on general classification. This classification shows a tight intercommunication of all types of fairy tales.Folk tales about animals are the most ancient ones. Animals remind people by their speech and behavior. The bases of magic folk tales are miraculous fictions. Everyday folk tale reflects a hero’s collision with life problems. There are a lot of depictions of British way of life and British house. In paragraph 1.2 we will view traditional British way of life and traditional house. Specific features of the British way of life There are a lot of events in the way of life and culture of any nation. They are difficult in their historical origin and executed functions. First of all we want to give a definition to the combination of words “way of life” referring to a Collins British Dictionary.Way of life is the behavior and habits that are typical of a particular person or group, or that are chosen by them (Collins English Dictionary 2015). Dew to Irina Anotonova’s words there is an adherence to stated traditions, way of life and habits in Great Britain. It tells on many aspects of material and spiritual culture. British people are depending on their houses (Antonova 2009). People very often say about British conservatism. Really, British people like everything old. For example, people who have enough money prefer to live in an old house. But British like comfort and that is why they have all conditions in their houses. A fireplace is an essential part and without it people consider the house in uncomfortable. Even where people have central heating they have an electric or gas fireplace (Ib. 2009).British dream is about their own house. It comes from a childhood. The British way of life is almost consider in the house, the fireplace and the little garden rear yard. An aspiration for living apart is still remain. That is why Britain is still a country of predominantly low buildings. The typical English house is a semi-detached house. Village settlement has two types: countries on east and farmers on east. The rooves are usually high with two sloping surfaces from tiles or asbestos cement. Houses are wireframe from stone, pebble or bricks. Igor Lebedev in his article writes that there are a lot of things in the modern British houses which differ from ours. For example, plug sockets differ. In Britain the voltage is 230V and frequency is 50. They use type G of plug and plug socket. English people have two taps in sink and bath. They have not got a mixer. This way of taps is made for economy. Also we can find differences in windows. They do not sweep open but arise sheer up (Lebedev 2012). After examining the notion “folk tale”, the main ways of its classification and also the notion “way of life” and the main theoretical aspects of traditional way of life, we analyzed texts of English folk tales in the aim to study specific features of the British way of life.The conclusions on the first chapterEnglish folk tales differ from Russian ones. They are different in everything: in the way of construction, in genre and action originality, in peculiarity of characters. Concrete information, facts are always found in the basis of English folk tales. The most general classification divides folk tales into magic tales, everyday tales, and tales about animals.People prefer living apart in their own house.British people depend on their houses and there is no better than home. That is why the British way of life and the British house are depicted in every day folk tales. Chapter 2. The reflection of the national British way of life in the English folk talesEnglish folk tales reflects national features of the English way of life in a very good way. They reflect the features of the typical house and of the typical way of life. Reading of the English folk tales helps to learn a lot about English mentality. We have examined a classification of folk tales above the text. For our further research we studied English household fairy tales. Fifty folk tales were analyzed by us to create the image of the English house and the English way of life. In our project the most frequent examples that describe the English life will be used. 2.1. The description of the British traditional way of life in English folk talesThere are a lot of descriptions of the way of life in folk tales. The characters can live in a village, in the farm or in the forest:“Lived in one village a guy. His name was Peter”. (Peter is a simpleton).“In the good old days - and it was really good, although it was not my time not your time and draw a time - lived in a dense forest, the old man with the old woman, and had an only son named Jack”. (Jack and the Golden snuffbox). Although the big amount of folk tales represents a shy life-style heroes have their own garden, field and ground:“And he led me to the garden. At one end of the garden sat a Fox in the nest, hatched the eagle's eggs. In the midst of the garden grew the iron Apple tree, covered with ripe pears”. (Grandma, grandpa). “I'm from the garden and back, and a full pot of turnip greens for lunch Navara”. (The tale of the three little pigs).“One fine summer's day Earl Mar's daughter went into the castle garden, dancing and tripping along.” (Earl Mar's Daughter). Except the garden the rich heroes also have stables:“He went into the stable, saddled the horse, quietly called his dog and sprang into the saddle, and Kate quietly sat down behind him”. (Kat-The Nutcracker).The poor characters have to farm and then sell the animals; otherwise there will not have money even on food:“Maternal hens and we barely knew how to count, and there were two dozen”. (Peter is a simpleton).“The cow every morning, gave milk, and the mother and son was selling it on the market, and lived. But once the Butterflies give no milk, and they just didn't know what to do”. (Jack and the Beanstalk). And also poor heroes have to go for a walk far away from their home:“They worked in the fields far from home , and each in turn had to cook for all lunch.” (Bluebeard).The analysis of the folk tales shows us that the English people are very hospitable. They can always help even if they do not know a person. They are ready to let the strangers come into the house. The folk tale “The Three Bears” shows us how hospitable English people are:“The door was not locked. Yes the bears are never locked– they were good bears: you didn't hurt yourself did not expect resentment”. (The Three Bears).“If she was a good woman, she certainly would have waited for the bears, and they probably gave her Breakfast. After all, they were good bears, though rough, like all bears, but good-natured and hospitable”. (The Three Bears).“The window was open, because the bears, like good, tidy bears, always aired the bedroom in the morning”. (The Three Bears).As English people are hospitable they want to treat their guests even if they have not got money:“The maid invited him into the house, to the hearth, and gave him food: fried meat, and bread, and beer”. (Jack and the Golden snuffbox).“I must say that ogress was a good woman. She took Jack into the kitchen and gave him a piece of bread with cheese and a jug of milk”. (Jack and the Beanstalk).“He bought me a slice of beer and a pint of cold veal, and the dog sat under the table and picked up the pieces”. (Grandma, grandpa). Dew to the folk tales we can say that English people like gardening. It is their hobby. Either poor people or rich people they all have gardens. And English are very hospitable. Despite of the lack of money they are always ready to help and to treat. The hero lives inThe favorite hobbyCharacter featuresA farmA villageA dense forestGardeningGood-naturedHospitablePicture 1. The most frequent words describing English men’s life2.2. The description of the British traditional house in English folk talesThe description of the house plays a big role in the folk tales. Every folk tale tells us about hero’s house. English people are very depending on their houses. They love their house. The houses can be made of different materials:“He lives in a brick house of solid logs, which stands by itself among sixty exactly the same.” (Grandma, grandpa). “The man gave him some straw and the little pig built himself a house.The man gave him some sticks and the pig built himself a house. The man gave him some bricks and the little pig built himself a house.” (The tale of the three little pigs). There are usually two floor it the houses and several rooms. Even poor heroes have more than one room:“Then the woman ran upstairs to the bedroom, where slept the three bears”. (The Three Bears).“And they each slept in their beds: a small-tiny baby-bear on the small cot, the average bear on the middle bed, and the big-burly of the large bear Croatie”. (The Three Bears).“But only struck twelve, the sick Prince rose, dressed and descended the stairs”. (Kat-The Nutcracker). “Better run upstairs and bring me my three buttons”. (Peter is a simpleton).“Once the daughter went down for a beer for dinner in the basement”. (Three smart heads).“And so Jack went up to his attic, in his little room, sad: and the mother was sorry, and he was left without dinner”. (Jack and the Beanstalk).Fireplace is an integral part of the house as there was no central heating.
THE REFERENCE LIST
1. Антонова, И.В. Является ли английская оригинальность реальной или мифической? / И.В. Антонова. – Оренбург, 2009.
2. Биссет, Д. Про полисмена Артура и про его коня Гарри; Малышка пингвин по имени Принц / Д. Биссет. – М. : Терра, 2005. — 268 с.
3. Будур, Н.В. Английская литературная сказка / Н.В. Будур. М.: АСТ, 2003. – 362 с.
10. J. B. Priestley. Found, Lost, Found, or the English Way of Life Hardcover / J. B. Priestley : William Heinemann Ltd. – 1976
11. John Kanu Woko. English Way Of Life -Breaking The Barrier: Breaking The Barrier / John Kanu Woko. - CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform – 2014. – 382 pages.
12. Quest-Ritson, Charles. The English Garden: A Social History / C. Quest-Riston. – London., Penguin : 2001.
Список иллюстративного материала:
1. Grandma, grandpa
2. House of Hilton
4. The three bears
5. The tale of the three little pigs
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