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Develop a strategic project for the modernization of logistics infrastructure elements for increasing technical reliability.
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Among the countries of BRIC Russia took the last position (the same result was in 2008).
International companies think according to rating that the better situation in Russia is with a logistics infrastructure (on this indicator we occupy 83 place), the worst situation is with customs service (115 place). Thus in comparison with 2007 the condition of an infrastructure (+10 positions), quality of customs service (+21 position), possibilities of tracing of cargo (+22 positions) has improved.
Practically without changes remained: an indicator of timeliness of delivery, on which we on 88th place (-1 position) and quality of international transportation (+1 position). The level of logistics competence of experts has fallen - on this indicator Russia has fallen from 83 places to 88 place in rating (The analytical review of transport and logistics market of Russia for 2011, EALA).
Nevertheless, for the last period of 2010 branch had also many positive moments. So, on June, 10th, 2010 summarising of VIII Ceremony of rewarding of participants of annual rating “The Logistics operator of Russia” has taken place in Moscow in hotel “the Renaissance Moscow”. The present rating is a unique rating for the Russian market, because it promotes the development and realization of logistical strategy and technologies.
Professional significance of the study. An increase of reliability of warehouse equipment and transport in operation and decrease in expenses for their maintenance make one of problems of the state value. The solution of this problem, on the one hand, is provided with motor industry, and the industry which is letting out the warehouse equipment, possessing the bigger operational reliability and adaptability to manufacture (maintainability), on the other hand, service of technical operation improving methods of support of logistics equipment in technically working order. The efficiency of the events spent by service of technical operation, in many respects is defined by constructive reliability of the equipment, their units, mechanisms and details. The reliability is one of the major properties put by manufacturer, defining the efficiency of equipment use to destination.
The problem of increasing technical reliability of logistics infrastructure is interesting for logistics companies, forwarding enterprises and logistics providers, because of reduction of costs on the maintenance of warehouse and transport equipment as well as its operation.
Definition of key terms. The reliability is the one of important functional properties of the logistical technical systems in many respects defining efficiency of their functioning and competitiveness in the world market. The reliability in narrow sense is a capability of object to work during a certain interval of time in the set service conditions. Later the complete definition of reliability will be given presented in the specifications and technical documentation. The reliability of devices and reliability of elements entering into them exist in reliability theory. Devices are often restorable products. Elements are usually nonrestorable products.
Literature review. Especially rapid development of the theory of reliability has been caused by intensive process of perfection of electronics and automatics, aircraft and the space-rocket technics. Semiempirical approaches to maintenance of reliability have ceased to meet the requirements of practice connected with necessity of reduction of weight and dimensions of equipment, reduction of terms of designing and introduction of samples of new technics. At this conjuncture there were preconditions for development of new scientific and technical direction “Reliability”. The development of this direction can be divided into three stages: 1950th - formation of a direction; 1960th - a stage of the classical theory of reliability; since 1970th till present - a stage of system methods of reliability.
The first researches concerning reliability in our country have been made in 1950th by academicians of USSR Academy of Science - A.I. Berg, N.G. Bruevich and member-correspondent USSR AS V.I. Siforov. During the same period there were works of leading experts in the field reliability of L.M. Polovko, G.V. Druzhinin, N.A. Shishonka, I.A. Ushakov, A.S. Pronikova, etc.
In the early 1960th the mathematical questions of the theory of reliability have intensively started to develop. The largest contribution is in the field made by B.V. Gnedenko, L.D. Solov’ev, Yu.K. Belyaev.
The development of theoretical and applied questions of reliability first of all was carried out in development of means of radio electronics and difficult control systems.
A big number of experts participated in development of questions of reliability and in other directions, for example, in instrument making, mechanical engineering, power, etc.
It is necessary to notice that questions of reliability were intensively investigated abroad, for example, by such experts, as D. Neumann, A. Pierce, K. Barlow. S. Proshan, etc.
The main principles of the reliability theory as a science were generated rather recently. The history of the reliability theory has begun in the mid 1940th - the beginning of 1950th based on the development of radio electronics, the nuclear physics, jet aircraft, the space technics as well as on the appearance of systems with a big number of elements. The reason of the first researches in the field of reliability was insufficient efficiency of the military technology created during the Second World War: up to 60% of new planes were disabled because of numerous refusals, 50% of electronic equipment failed during the storage time, i.e. even before its use, the average operating time to the full electronic systems of bombers made only 20 hours, up to 70% of electronic facilities of naval courts failed during the operation initial stage.
The science on reliability originally developed mainly in application to radio-electronic systems and the mathematical theory, attempts of application of its substantive provisions in other branches of technics were also made.
In the 1940th the basic efforts on increasing the reliability of various technical objects have been directed on increase in durability of their knots and units: perfection of designs, use of stronger materials, increase of hardness and quality of processing of worn out surfaces, perfection of measuring devices, etc. Besides, a close attention began to be given to development of scheduled preventive works and repairs, working out of economically effective techniques of estimation of quality of made production taking into account the level of its reliability.
In 1950th a big attention began to be given to estimation and providing the safety arrangements, especially in space and nuclear branches, including the errors of operating staff that lead to refusals.
In 1960th a necessity for development of essentially new methods of maintenance of reliability and safety as well as their application for various branches from unique methodological positions was obvious. The main attention was given not to study of behavior of separate elements of technical systems (mechanical, electric, hydraulic, etc.) but to influence of their refusals on working capacity of systems as a whole. The development of the first intercontinental ballistic missiles and piloted spaceships has led to substantial increase of requirements on reliability and safety, occurrence of new methods and schemes of an estimation of indicators of reliability, working out of new systems of registration and account of elements refusals, operational and experimental data.
In 1970th the intensive development of industrial risk estimation methods started in connection with atomic engineering development, they were further used in other branches.
In 1980-90th the system of estimation and reliability and safety maintenance of industrial equipment was formed in the majority of industrially developed countries, it was provided with corresponding standard and methodical base.
In history of the reliability theory it is possible to name 4 stages:
- till 1943 – the “pre-science” period, reliability questions hadn’t consistency and scientific approach, reliability problems were considered incidentally from various methodological positions;
- 1943-1958 - the “pencil-paper” period, when reliability description contained more probability-statistical methods, the moments of refusals were considered as purely casual events without finding the reasons of their occurrence;
- 1958-1968 - development of basically experimental methods of reliability estimation, active studying of reasons of refusals occurrence (“physics of refusals”), gathering and processing of operational information, development of elementary models of refusals;
- after 1968 - prevailing development of mathematical apparatus of the reliability theory and applied engineering methods.
Список используемой литературы:
1.В.Дыбская Тенденции развития логистической инфраструктуры в России/ Современная логистическая инфраструктура/Прикладная логистика №1-2/2011г.
2.Елин В.А. Статья «Транспортная логистика России готовится к прыжку» http://slg.ru/magazine/2011/3.php
3.В.И. Бобров Надежность технических систем: Учеб.пособие.М-МГУП, 2009.
4.Травин М. Управление надежностью производственных систем в условиях риска – Потсдам - Кострома – 2003.
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