Managment Styles (Стили менеджмента)

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Дата создания 06 июля 2013
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Autocratic Management Style
Conflict Management Style
Democratic Management Style
Participative Management Style
List of literature


Managment Styles (Стили менеджмента)

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

What is a managed fund and how does it work
Why invest in managed funds?
Types of managed funds
Choosing a managed fund
Risk and return
About risk
Controlling risk
The lowdown on fees
Tax: the hidden cost
Investment styles
The indexing pioneers
Vanguard index funds
Introduction to managed funds
The first Australian managed fund was introduced in 1936. Since then managed funds have become a popular form of investment, with millions of Australian now investing more than $1.2 trillion. So why are managed funds so popular, and more importantly, how do they work?
Managed funds provide a cost-effective way for investors, large and small, to access a diversified mix of investments in a professionally managed package. Because your money is pooled with other investors you can invest in assets which might be too difficult or expensive to invest in directly yourself.
This Plain Talk® guide introduces the concept of managed funds; describing the types of funds available, how they are managed and their benefits and costs. It aims to improve your knowledge and understanding of managed funds and help you make more informed investment choices.
What is a managed fund and how does it work?
A managed fund pools together people’s money to invest in a range of investments.
Typically, a professional fund manager makes investments on behalf of investors in line with the fund’s stated investment strategy and objectives. Instead of owning the investments yourself, like when you buy shares directly, the managed fund owns the underlying investments on your behalf.
Most managed funds are divided into units – so when you invest in a managed fund you are usually purchasing units in that fund. The number of units you are allocated will depend on how much money you have invested and represents your share of the fund.
While the number of units you own doesn’t change, their value will change in line with the market value of the underlying investments. This is measured by the unit price.
There are many different kinds of managed funds offering a range of investment objectives and strategies. Managed funds generally have a Product Disclosure Statement (PDS), which clearly states the investment objective, benefits and costs of the fund.
The PDS also details the types of investments the fund will hold, how the investments will be managed and the types of risk investors can expect.
Why invest in managed funds?
Professional management
Professional fund managers take care of managing your money on your behalf. This means you don’t have to worry about trying to time markets and choosing which companies or securities to invest in.
Fund managers are experts in their field of investment, combining economic, market and corporate knowledge to analyse the sectors and companies they invest in. They also make sure your money is invested in accordance with the fund’s objectives, investment strategy and risk parameters.
As your money is pooled with other investors, you can access a much wider range of investments than you can by investing directly yourself. As managed fund investors enjoy a greater level of diversification than direct investors, they are less exposed to the performance fluctuations of individual shares or securities. An Australian equity fund, for example, might hold 100 or more shares in its portfolio. It would be very costly and time-consuming to build this level of diversification as an individual investor.
Access global investment opportunities
As an individual investor it is difficult to build up a portfolio of international investments directly. Investing internationally can increase your diversification further and give access to industries and companies not available in Australia. After all, Australia represents less than three per cent of the total world sharemarket.
Long-term growth potential
Managed funds provide the opportunity to grow your money over the long term. Compounding returns over time can make a big difference to the growth of your investment. While more volatile over the shorter term, growth assets, like shares and property, can help protect the purchasing power of your money and offer greater growth potential over the longer term. Don’t forget that past performance is no guarantee of future performance, and that returns can go up as well as down.
Regular income
Managed funds can provide a regular source of income. Some funds offer monthly, quarterly or six-monthly income distributions to investors. Investors can choose to take distributions in cash payments or reinvest them back into the fund. Reinvesting your income distributions can compound your returns giving you potential for higher growth.
You don’t need much money to get started
You can access a managed fund with a few thousand dollars, or less. There are managed funds available for personal investors, higher net worth individuals, self managed super funds, companies and major institutions.
Most fund managers offer a switching service so you can change funds quickly and easily if your investment needs or circumstances change. You should check the PDS for information about switching, including any costs involved.
It’s simple
Investing in managed funds is easy. Once you’ve decided which fund suits your investment style, objectives and risk profile, the fund manager does the rest.
Smart investing tip 1 – invest often
Timing the markets for the best time to invest is easier said than done, which is why many investors use a dollar cost averaging strategy. With this strategy, you invest a set amount into a managed fund on a regular basis, regardless of the unit price, to average out market fluctuations over time. One of the easiest ways to implement this strategy is to start a regular investment plan with a managed fund.
Types of managed funds
Managed funds offer a wide choice of investment options. For example, you can choose from single sector funds like Australian share and international share funds, or diversified or multi-sector funds that include a mix of sectors like shares, fixed interest and property. The mix of assets in a diversified fund reflects the risk profile of the fund – usually described as conservative, balanced or growth.
Investments are divided into growth or income assets. Shares and property are growth assets that primarily provide returns in the form of capital growth. Over the longer term these assets can provide a good hedge against inflation.
Bonds and cash are income assets that primarily provide returns in the form of income. Income assets tend to provide more stable, albeit lower returns.
The right type of investment for you will depend on your investment objectives, timeframe and tolerance for risk. The following are the most common types of managed funds.*
Single sector managed funds
for short-term investors;
usually includes higher interest paying securities than bank accounts
or term deposits; and
lowest risk of all asset classes.
Fixed interest
for short to medium-term investors (around three to five years);
low to medium risk;
can provide a steady and reliable income stream and potential for capital growth;
usually offer a higher interest rate, or yield, than cash; and
access Commonwealth Government, state governments, semi-government authorities and company debt from Australia or overseas.
Property Securities
for medium to long-term investors (five years plus);
lower risk growth asset than shares;
returns include income and capital growth;
diversification benefits with access to properties in retail, office, industrial, tourism and infrastructure sectors; and
you can invest in both Australian and international property security funds.
Australian shares
for long-term investors (seven years plus);
potential for higher returns with higher risk;
potential for income through payment of dividends and tax benefits in the form of dividend imputation; and
access a diversified range of companies listed on the Australian Stock Exchange.
International shares
for long-term investors (seven years plus);
potential for higher returns with higher risk;
access industries and investment opportunities not available in Australia; and
diversification benefits when investing in a range of countries, industries and companies.
Diversified or multi-sector managed funds
available in a mix of investment profiles from conservative to more aggressive;
investment timeframe depends on type of fund chosen;
invests in more than one asset sector;
diversified approach can lower risk; and
professional fund manager decides the asset allocation (i.e. how much to invest in each asset sector) of the fund according to the fund’s investment objectives and prevailing market conditions.
* This is general financial product advice only. We have not taken your circumstances into account when preparing this publication so the above information may not suit your needs. You should consider your circumstances and consult your financial adviser before making any investment decision.
Choosing a managed fund
When choosing a managed fund there a number of factors to take into account. These include your attitude to risk and return, your investment objectives, your time horizon and personal circumstances. Costs, tax and investment styles are also important considerations.
Smart investing tip 2 – invest long term
People often get caught up with short-term stock selection, which can deliver inconsistent results. While one investment might deliver great returns one year, it is difficult to pick winners every year. When it comes to investing, it generally pays to invest for the long term.
Risk and return
Risk and return are inextricably linked. Usually the higher the risk, the higher the expected return.
How are returns generated?
The overall performance of a managed fund simply reflects how the underlying assets are performing. The market prices of these assets can go up and down daily.
Returns generally come in the form of income and growth. Income can include earnings from share dividends, rent from property and interest from fixed interest and cash type investments. It can also come from capital gains when profits are realised upon the sale of an underlying asset in the fund. Fund income distributions are generally made at regular intervals. Investors can choose to take their income payments in cash or reinvest them back into the fund.
Growth comes from any increase in the value of the portfolio’s assets and is reflected in the fund’s unit price. It is only realised when you sell your units in the fund.
As performance can be volatile in the short term it is best to take a longer-term perspective (five years plus) when assessing managed fund performance. It is also important to remember that past fund performance is no guarantee of future performance.
Smart investing tip 3 – diversify
One of the most important investment decisions you can make is how you divide your money between each asset class, referred to as asset allocation. Diversifying across a range of asset sectors, industries and securities reduces market risk and can improve your performance potential. In multi-sector managed funds the fund manager does this for you.
About risk
No risk can be a risk in itself
Rising prices due to inflation can erode the real value, or purchasing power of your investments. In some cases, the real value of your money may actually fall over time.
Market risk
This is the risk that share, property, fixed interest or cash markets will decline in value. The sharemarket is influenced by a number of factors, including the underlying strength of the economy, political factors, industry trends and investor sentiment. On the other hand, fixed interest and cash markets are influenced by expectations for interest rates and inflation.
Currency risk
International investments are subject to fluctuations in the value of the Australian dollar against other currencies. Currency movements can seriously impact the return on your investments, when you convert your returns into local dollars. For example, when the $A appreciates dramatically against the $US and the profits are repatriated to Australia, they then convert into fewer $As than they would have if the $A had been weaker. The converse also applies. Some funds use hedging to reduce the impact of currency fluctuations.
Economic and political risk
Economic and political factors play an important role in the performance of investment markets. Economic factors include economic growth, inflation, employment, interest rates and business sentiment. Changes in government, political uncertainty and international conflicts can also impact markets.
Credit risk
Funds that invest in fixed interest and debt securities are subject to credit risk. This is the possibility that an issuer will fail to repay interest and principal in a timely manner (also known as default risk). By holding a diversified portfolio of high quality securities this risk can be reduced.
Manager risk
Manager risk is where a managed fund underperforms its benchmark or market index due to poor investment selection. Active fund managers will try to pick stocks they believe will outperform the market based on their philosophy and research. Sometimes this works in their favour and sometimes it doesn’t. Some active funds rely on individual fund managers for their performance and can be subject to key person risk if that manager decides to leave.
How much risk can you tolerate?
Your attitude to risk is one of the most important factors when considering a managed fund. While growth assets, like shares and property securities, tend to have more volatile returns over the shorter-term – meaning they are likely to produce negative returns more often than income type investments – they have the potential to produce higher returns over longer-term timeframes.
The Australian Securities and Investments Commission suggests investors can expect a negative return once in every four years for shares, six years for property and eight years for fixed interest.
Generally, the longer your investment timeframe and risk tolerance level the higher the level of growth assets you can include in your portfolio. As the graph opposite shows, over time, the ups and downs of investment markets tend to even out and the gap between the highest and lowest returns closes. This is why it is important to consider your investment timeframe when choosing a managed fund.
Smart investing tip 4 – costs matter
Costs can take a large chunk out of your investment return. So, it’s important to compare fund fees before you invest. Look at things like contribution fees, adviser commissions and management fees as these can all add up over time. Not all managed funds charge these fees, so make sure you examine the fine print and know exactly what you are paying for and how much.

Список литературы

1.Cherrington, D.J. Organizational Behavior: The Management of Individual and Organizational Performance.
2.Mescon, M.H., C.L. Bovee, and J.V. Thill. Business Today.
3.Robbins, Stephen P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior.

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