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Chapter 1. Distinctive features of journalism as a discourse form
1.1. Discourse concept definition
1.2. Stylistic peculiarities of political essays
1.3. Journalism information field and cognitive models of argumentation
1.4. Objectivity and expression forms of expressivity, evaluation and emotionality
Chapter 2. Objectivity of political essays concerning Russia in the Western mass media
2.1. Bias in evaluation and comparison
2.1.1. Use of similes
2.1.2. Use of metaphors
2.1.3. Use of epithets
2.1.4. Use of understatement means
2.1.5. Use of periphrasis and euphemisms
2.1.6. Use of cliches and derogatory remarks
2.1.7. Use of hyperboles
2.1.8. Use of idioms
2.2. Validity of cause-and-effect relation
Political essays used
Objctivity in reporting ( на материалах иностранной прессы о России)
Фрагмент работы для ознакомления
This study is concerned with some of the reasons why we should study the forms of journalism more closely for a while, apart from the content and effects of journalistic messages. We therefore maintain that form can — to some extent — be separated from content. Some people argue that the aspects of communication are too closely entwined to be separated meaningfully. It is impossible to talk about one aspect without referring to the others. In this paper we take it more or less for granted that formal characteristics can be isolated in journalism, if only because textbooks in journalism are full of recipes containing descriptions of formal elements.
A more difficult problem is whether the mode of speech and the accompanying formal arrangements of the text include some given modes of interpretation by the public. For instance, the editorial, the news report and the feature may contain an unknown number of topics as forms, but they signify only three different styles of writing carrying an implicit message of how to interpret the author's intent. How closely styles of writing and presentation correlate with modes of interpretation is a problem I want to leave aside in this paper. We are more interested in the sender side of our problem. However, a regular feature of sender strategies is the nature of the audience. Journalism is embedded in more comprehensive social mores. Changes in form requires concurrent changes in rules of interaction, both for journalists and for their sources of information. But the kinds of information sources journalists usually contact is influenced by their own attitude to various phenomena, officials and political events as well as the nature of their audience.
The urgency of the present research is determined by the general orientation of the modern functional style distinctive paradigms. The approach proper to structural semantics adepts enables to find out a number of cognitive structures specific to representation of knowledge by these or those language forms, implicitly or explicitly. Most of the current linguistic researches strictly correspond to or mainly follow principles of cognitive and structural semantics, search for semantic meta paroles so as to provide objective description and analysis of the structure macro- and micro- components and distinctive features of this or that discourse.
So as to provide the theoretical basis required concerning discourse theories, functional style distinctive features, stylistic and semantic categories of expressivity, evaluation and emotionality, use of various tropes we refer to the latest linguistic theories developed by a number of researchers, among whom we focus mostly on N.D. Arutunova, I.V. Arnold, E.I. Sheigal, T.A. van Dijk, J.L.Austin, W.Empson, T.Givon, J.J.Gumperz, G.Leech, J.R. Searle, M.Shapiro, D.Shiffrin, A.Wierzbicka and many other both Russian and foreign linguists.
The purpose of the study is style analysis of specificity of reporting and argumentation in the political essays of English-speaking journalists concerning the current political situation in Russia. Therefore we intend to take into consideration the following problems:
providing definition of discourse concept,
characterizing political essays, as a functional style specific to journalism and mass media,
outlining logic and cognitive bases of the style proper to political essays,
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2.Belton C. Medvedev wants Ukraine to pay gas debts //The Financial times – 21 November 2008.
3.Bush J. Suspect Lawsuits Target Russian Financial Firms // Business Week – 6 November 2008.
4.Business as usual // The Guardian – 14 November 2008.
5.Butler D. Bush administration seeks breakthrough with Moscow // Washington Times – 6 November 2008.
6.Campbell M. Feel free to ogle my Olga, says rich banker: A Russian billionaire is celebrating his wife's beauty by printing a book of erotic photographs of her // The Sunday Times – 16 November 2008.
7.Chivers C.J. Georgia Claims on Russia War Called Into Question // The New York Times – 6 November 2008.
8.Clover Ch. Moscow signals depreciation of rouble // Financial times – 11 November 2008.
9.Clover Ch. Putin unveils tax cuts in $20bn stimulus deal The Financial times – 21 November 2008.
10.Dale H. Moscow's next move // The Washington Times -12 November 2008.
11.Eckel M. Opposition to Russian military reforms grows// The Washington Times -19 November 2008.
12.Elder M. 'It was no holiday being married to Roman,' says ex-wife //The Independent - 12 November 2008.
13.Filatova I. Putin in the dock // The Guardian – 18 November 2008.
14.Flanagan S.J. Chavez-Russia gambit signals need for U.S. moves // The Washington Times -19 November 2008.
15.Franchetti M. Pregnant oil boss pleads for pardon from Dmitry Medvedev// The Times – 02 November 2008.
16.Goodman J.D. The Kremlin Goes Drone Shopping // The New York Times – 18 November 2008.
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27.Marson J. Breaking the cold war paradigm // The Guardian – 6 November 2008.
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29.Moscow’s missiles //The Financial times – 6 November 2008.
30.Obama's Russia Test // The Wall Street Journal - 7 November 2008.
31.Osborn A. Unpaid Wages Spur Reminders of 1998; Putin Pledges Help // The Wall Street Journal - 21 November 2008.
32.Pan P. P. Juror Defies Russian Court's Attempts to Close Trial// The Washington Times -21 November 2008.
33.Parfitt T. Deripaska mill that polluted Lake Baikal closes // The Guardian – 12 November 2008.
34.Poker with missiles // The Guardian – 7 November 2008.
35.Putin and the Press// The Wall Street Journal - 20 November 2008.
36.Realism about Russia // The Times – 12 November 2008.
37.Russia on Trial: Justice for one murdered journalist would bring justice closer for an entire country // The Times – 18 November 2008.
38.Russia vs. Obama // The Washington Times -12 November 2008.
39.Saunders D. Russian leaders move to extend rule for years// The Globe and Mail - 12 November 2008.
40.Shuster R. Is the new Russian airline self-defeating? // The New York Times – 10 November 2008.
41.Solomon J. U.S. Sends Russia Proposals // The Wall Street Journal - 7 November 2008.
42.Soloviova D. Moscow Starts to Tackle Billboard Buildup // The Wall Street Journal - 7 November 2008.
43.Spence A. Former Yukos owners begin $50bn claim against Russia // The Times – 18 November 2008.
44.Stack M.K. In Russia's Putin-Medvedev shuffle, Putin is the lead dancer // Los Angeles Times - 14 November 2008.
45.Threat – or opportunity? – The Independent - 7 November 2008.
46.Tisdal S. Obama and Medvedev: a lot to prove // The Guardian – 6 November 2008.
47.Troianovsky A. Sochi's Olympian Task // The Wall Street Journal - 14 November 2008.
48.White G. L. and Kelly L. Russia Weakens Ruble to Fight Drain on Cash Reserves // The Wall Street Journal - 12 November 2008.
49.World Bank chief: Better ties with Russia a must// The Washington Times -19 November 2008.
50.Young C. From Russia With Loathing // The New York Times – 21 November 2008.
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