Маркетинг и менеджмент

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Дата создания 07 июля 2013
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Конкурентный анализ
Феномен конкуренции
Процесс конкурентного анализа
Поведение покупателя
Поведение потребителя
Поведение организации-покупателя


Маркетинг и менеджмент

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Consumer buyer behavior
The study of buyer behavior is the understanding of how individuals or organizations behave in the purchase situation. It is really psychology applied to marketing, specifically to the buy decision. For example, success of karate, has resulted not because Professional Karate Association (PKA) has attempted to market karate to everyone, but rather because it has identified a specific demographic market segment that exhibits certain buyer behavior patterns. The factors that are important for fans of any football coach include: winning, convenient parking, right information to promote games, right personnel to sell the team, right time to play games, right place to play games; right amount of money to finance games; concessions; additional services forthe games; right ticket price; band; booster club; cheerleaders; pom-pom girls. Buyer behavior in different segments of market also depends on the age and sex of customers.
It is important because if the buying behavior of a segment of the market is understood, it presents an opportunity for the marketing manager to fulfill the needs of potential customers in a unique way: not only physically but psychologically. The other side of the coin is if the marketing manager fails to fulfill the psychological needs of his or her potential customers, he or she will probably fail, even though the product or service satisfies physical needs.
This has been conceptualized as consumer behavior goals that marketing managers seek to achieve. They include increasing product adoption and repeat usage, satisfying consumers at a profit, protecting and educating consumers, satisfying consumers at an acceptable and nominal cost to them, and educating a social response.
Consumer behavior can also help us in implementation of strategy and technical goals. One study of psychographic segmentation, or grouping people by the way they behave, indicated that psychographic segmentation solutions developed for a market in one geographical location were generalizable to markets in other geographical locations. Thus consumer behavior concerns both strategy and tactics.
There are two basic categories of buyer behavior. The first is the consumer. But there is also an organizational category of buyer behavior that is equally important. It is necessary to understand not only the motivations and the background of the behavior of the individual consumer purchasing consumer products but also that of the organizational buyer whose motivations may be at least as complicated and difficult to comprehend. Neither may behave in what we could consider a “logical” fashion. Understanding both groups can be of great value because of the potential of so called “dual marketing”. That is, marketing to both consumers and organizational buyers. Benefits include serving a broader range of consumers, smoother production scheduling, capability of shifting resources, more profitable use of production capacity, and the opportunity to sell excess inventory.
Certain generalizations can be made based upon purchase influence studies regarding the consumer buying process. These include factors having to do with family decision making, internal factors that influence the consumer, and external factors that influence the consumer.
There are three household decision factors that we must consider: 1) Involvement of the husband versus the wife varies widely depending upon product category; 2) Influence within each product category varies by decision stages; 3) For each type of consumer decision, family member influence varies considerably among families. Internal factors that influence the consumer in the buying process include stages of information processing and consumer characteristics of behavior. A psychologist might divide human information processing into various stages. One such division of process includes successive steps of exposure, perception, comprehension, agreement, retention, retrieval, decision making, and action. Depending upon the stage, influence and behavior will vary. Consumer characteristics of behavior might include information such as age, sex, occupation, ethnic group, life style, and psychographics including way of thinking. External factors influencing the purchase decision include promotion, contact with others, direct experience with the product, and perceived price value relationships by the consumer.
It is possible to categorize consumer buying behavior and process as two distinct models, one simple, the other complex. The simple model is known as habitual brand choice. This purchase decision model works after the complex model has already resulted in a purchase decision and generally involves low-involvement products. The simple model simply means that one continues to purchase the brand or product or go to the dealer or store used in the past providing that the consumer was satisfied with it. Through habitual brand choice, you make decisions without much thought and without much wasted time, at the same time lowering your risk of satisfaction due to a favorable experience or at least an acceptable experience with the product in the past.
In the purchase of an unfamiliar product or one that is more expensive, a more complex decision-making process may occur. This includes: 1) recognition of the problem or felt need, 2) the search for alternative solutions to the desire, 3) the evaluation of the alternatives, 4) purchase decision, and 5) postpurchase feelings and evaluation. The last element is known as cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is the tension caused by uncertainty about the rightness of a purchase decision. This may lead the consumer to search for additional information to confirm that the decision was the right one in the first place. Thus, the buyer may continue to shop and look at competitive products even after the product has been purchased.
There is a number of theories, concerning major factors influencing consumer buyer behavior. The first is motivational theory, developed by Abraham H. Maslow. Maslow’s theory was that human being were motivated by a hierarchy of needs, beginning with physiological needs and progressing successively to safety needs, the need for love, esteem or self-respect needs, and self-actualization needs. Also at a high level but not quite fitting in with the previous needs in order were two other classes of needs: aesthetic needs and the need to know and understand. While there might be some overlap between each type of need, according to Maslow, as one need becomes satisfied, we seek to satisfy the next, and so on. So, only if your physiological needs are satisfied, your buyer behavior may appear and develop.
Modern social scientists have theorized that several different levels and segments of society influence the consumer purchase decision. These include (1) culture, (2) subcultures, (3) social classes, (4) reference groups, and (5) face-to-face groups. Culture has to do with aspects of people that are more psychological than simply biological, physiological, or organic. An ethnic group, a religion, or nationality may have a certain culture. When a culture can be further divided into segments, these are known as subcultures. A marketing manager must recognize the extreme difficulty if not the impossibility of selling certain types or classes of products to certain groups. It would be unlikely that a marketer could succeed in selling pork products to religious Jews or Moslems. It is also very difficult for marketers to succeed in selling certain other types of foods to various groups due to their culture or subculture.
Each social class has been also found to exhibit different buyer behavior. Research scientists in the United States have developed a six-class system of social class. These are (1) the upper-upper or old families; (2) the lower-upper or those that are newly arrived in class; (3) the upper-middle, which includes mostly the professionals and the more successful businesspeople; (4) the lower-middle, which are the white-collar salaried class; (5) the upper-lower, which are the basic wage earners and skilled worker group; and finally (6) the lower-lower, which are the unskilled labor groups.
Other research has shown differences in information search by different social classes depending on perceived risk. For example, people in the highest social class reported using consumer guides “usually” or “sometimes” for high risk purchases. But in the lowest social class, no one reported using this information source that frequently.
Reference groups are individuals or groups of people to whom consumers refer or use as a point of reference in making their own judgments or actions regarding purchase decisions. A face-to-face group is a subset of a reference group that requires face-to-face contact. In general, it has been found that reference group influence is very strong in an information vacuum where the consumer has little or no direct knowledge about the attributes of a product or service. A most important factor is how conspicuous the product is. This means both visibility and noticeability. With a conspicuous product, reference group influence is usually the strongest.
Family buying is a particular type of face-to-face reference group. Important considerations include: who makes the purchase decision; what is the purchase agent; who is the ultimate user; what are the power positions within the family.
Other factors also influence the consumer’s purchase behavior. These include personality, attitude, learning, and willingness to adopt or innovate. Personality pervades many aspects of the consumer behavior process. Various segmentations have been proposed and used, for example, life-style – how individuals live - and psychographics – how people think. In some cases psychological tests have been given to establish the boundaries of these segments. However, marketing managers should be cautious in utilizing data pertaining only to personality and relating it to consumer behavior. There may be other factors or combinations of factors that are more important than personality that seems to have a great impact on how the consumer behaves in buying.
Attitude consists of a predisposition to respond in a certain way. Some scientists theorize that attitude has three basic components: (1) an effective component, (2) a cognitive component, and (3) a behavioral component. The effective component is that aspect that evaluates an object on the basis of its goodness or badness. The cognitive component is that element of attitude that predisposes the consumer to perceive the product and differentiate it from other products. The behavioral component predisposes the consumer to act toward the product or something representing that product in a certain way. Thus, a consumer with a positive attitude toward a product might be predisposed to defend it or, if possessing a negative attitude, to attack it. In general, two different approaches might be used to take note of the influence of attitude. First, a marketing manager might attempt to change the attitude of the consumer, or second, a marketing manager might attempt to change the product or service so as to be more in conformity with the consumer’s predisposition.
Closely aligned with attitude is learning, since attitudes can themselves be learned. If we want to induce repeat purchase through learning, we might initiate a sequence of events starting with product trial and then proceeding to an initial purchase with little financial obligation. Next, we would induce purchase with moderate financial obligation. For the final step, we would induce purchase at the full amount.
One of the more challenging aspects of new product introduction is that of the adoption process. One marketing scientist categorized people adopting a new product or service as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. Each group represents a percentage of the total population and has certain characteristics. Innovators are the first to adopt, but they are sometimes ridiculed by their more conservative associates. Early adopters furnish a disproportionate amount of formal leadership and are respected as good sources of information. The early majority must be certain an idea will work before they adopt it, and they may look to the early adopters for the information. The late majority adopts new products or services after the average have already been using it. While they participate less actively in formal groups, they may form the bulk of the membership in formal organizations. Finally, the laggards participate least in formal organizations and other programs concerning groups, and this group may include the nonadopters as well if the new product or service is not adopted by everyone.
Organizational buyer behavior
The behavior of consumers is not a constant and marketing managers must maintain a pulse on these changes to be successful. They must do, combined with research to determine how the consumer is behaving in the marketplace. But buyer behavior of organizational buyers and consumer buyers is not identical. While there are psychological dimensions to organizational buying, there are other elements to be considered, such as:

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