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1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. How old was Lomonosov when he left his native village?
2. When was the first Russian University founded?
M. V. LOMONOSOV
1. M. V. Lomonosov was born in 1711 in the village of Denisovka near Arkhangelsk in the family of a fisherman. At the age of 17 he left his native village and made his way to Moscow. In Moscow he entered the Slavonic-Greek-Latin Academy. Lomonosov didn't finish his last grade, as he was sent with eleven other pupils to St. Petersburg to study at the Academy of Sciences.
2. Less than a year after he came to Petersburg Lomonosov was sent abroad to study metallurgy and mining. In 1741 Lomonosov returned to Russia and began to teach chemistry and physics at the Academy.
3. Lomonosov established the fundamental lawof chemical change of substance which is called the Law of Conservation of Mass.
4. Lomonosov founded a new science that we call today physical chemistry. He also studied electrical phenomena in atmosphere of the Earth, the nature of light, and designed an improved telescope. Lomonosov considered nature to be in a state of constant change and development. Coal, oil, etc. were all formed as a result of evolution.
5. Lomonosov was a great scientist. His works in poetry had a great influence on Russian literature. Owing to his efforts, the first Russian University was founded in Moscow in 1755. This university bearing his name became the centre of knowledge and science in Russia.
1. Lomonosov left ...
2. The first ...
2. Переведите в письменной форме абзацы 1, 2, 4.
1. Ломоносов родился в 1711 году в ...
3. Заполните пропуски соответствующей активной или пассивной формой глагола и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. In 1745 Lomonosov (was appointed, appointed) a professor at the Academy of Sciences.
2. The first electric lamp (was invented, invented) in 1873 by A. N. Lodygin.
3. In 1911 Marie Curie (was received, received) the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты:
1. Lomonosov considered chemistry to be his "main profession".
2. The air is known to be a mixture of gases.
3. Lomonosov is considered to be a great Russian scientist.
5. Определите функции инфинитива и переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Lomonosov began to work at an early age.
2. Edison founded an electric company to supply electricity to New York and other places.
3. The experiment to be made by this scientist will give us important information.
6. Употребите глагол-сказуемое в будущем времени, используя эквиваленты модальных глаголов:
1. They must solve a number of scientific problems.
2. She can do this work in time.
3. You may use this method in your research.
7. Заполните пропуски неопределенными местоимениями some, any, no:
1. There were (some, any, no) other higher schools at that time in Russia.
2. Can you give me (some, any, no) magazines?
3. They carried out (some, any, no) experiments yesterday.
8. а) Прочтите и переведите текст. Выполните задания, которые следуют за ним.
Electricity is made in many ways. One way is a battery, as used in a transistor radio. A simple battery has a positive terminal, connected to a carbon rod. The carbon rod is placed in a chemical paste inside a zinc container.
Any material which will allow electricity to flow through it is called a conductor. Most metals are good conductors.
A simple battery converts, or changes, chemical energy into electrical energy. Other forms of energy, such as heat and light, may be converted into electricity. The most common way of making electricity is by the conversion of mechanical energy.
б) Употребите нужное по смыслу местоимение:
1. If the petrol tank is empty, pour (some, any, no) petrol into it.
2. There was (some, any, no) water in the radiator, so we had to refill it.
3. This mechanic can repair (some, any, no) type of engine.
в) Выпишите из текста предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое употребляется в пассиве.
г) Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What is a conductor?
2. Are metals good conductors?
3. What forms of energy can be converted into electricity