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The Golden State California

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Код 232582
Дата создания 17 июня 2016
Страниц 20
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Описание

Central Valley in California – it’s the agricultural hub of the state and the primary agricultural provider of the nation. ...

Содержание

Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 3
1. "The Golden State: California" …………………………………………….. 5
1.1. Main information about the state ……………………………………. 5
1.2. Geography and environment ………………………………………… 7
1.3. Climate ………………………………………………………………. 10
1.4. Government ………………………………………………………….. 11
1.5. Economy ……………………………………………………………... 13
1.6. Resources and consumption ………………………………………….. 15
1.7. Education …………………………………………………………….. 17
1.8. Culture ………………………………………………………………... 18
Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………….19
References ………………………………………………………………………….. 20

Введение

California is called the "Golden state", keeping in mind its wonderful climate and abundant nature, and found gold here.

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

Climate California's climate varies widely. Much of the state has a Mediterranean climate, with cool, rainy winters and dry summers. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, one encounters colder winters and hotter summers. Northern parts of the state average higher annual rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have a mountain climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer. [21] The east sideof California's mountains has a drier rain shadow. The low deserts east of the Southern California mountains experience hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters; the higher-elevation deserts of eastern California see hot summers and cold winters. In Death Valley, the highest temperature in the Western Hemisphere, 134 °F (57 °C), was recorded on July 10, 1913.Government The capital of the state is Sacramento. California is organized into three branches of government – the executive branch consisting of the Governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The state also allows ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall, and ratification. Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independents vote. After June 8, 2010 when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the U.S. President and county central committee offices, all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party. At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation. If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.[21]Executive branch The California executive branch consists of the Governor of California and seven other elected constitutional officers: Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Controller, State Treasurer, Insurance Commissioner, and State Superintendent of Public Instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.Legislative branch The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.Judicial branch California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007. Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Texas is far more active in carrying out executions). California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States (with a total of 1,600 judges, while the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, 4 representatives from the State Bar of California, and 1 member from each house of the state legislature. So, from all of the above mentioned, the system of the government can be represented schematically as follows:2014855199390GovernmentGovernment2919730200660291973019113517100551816103929380392430Judicial branchJudicial branch2005330382905Legislative branchLegislative branch71755382905Executive branchExecutive branch4529455194945480568017589529102051949452691130185420938530175895652780166370485330559055Lower courts0Lower courts394843068581Supreme Court0Supreme Court303403049530Senate00Senate200533049530Assembly00Assembly99568049531Constitutional officers0Constitutional officers4318049531Governor00GovernorFig. 1 The system of governmentEconomy As of 2007, the gross state product (GSP) was about $1.812 trillion, which is the largest in the United States. California is responsible for 13 percent of the United States gross domestic product (GDP). As of 2006, California's GDP was larger than all but eight countries in the world (and all but eleven countries by Purchasing Power Parity). California was facing a $16 billion budget deficit for the 2008-09 budget year. [10] California is also the home of several significant economic regions, such as Hollywood (entertainment), Southern California (aerospace), the Central Valley (agriculture), the Silicon Valley and Tech Coast (computers and high tech), and wine-producing regions such as the Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley. In terms of jobs, the five largest sectors in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In terms of output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing. California's economy is very dependent on trade, and international-related commerce accounts for approximately one-quarter of the state’s economy. In 2007 California exported $134 billion worth of goods, up from $127 billion in 2006 and $117 billion in 2005, surpassing the 2000 peak of $125 billion for two consecutive years. Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 36 percent of the state's total exports in 2007. [11] Although agriculture contributes the least toward employment and output, it remains a very important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales have more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3 billion in 1974 to nearly $31 billion in 2004. This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. Per head personal income was $38,956 as of 2006, ranking 11th in the nation. [12] Per head income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. Recently, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the nation, on par with Appalachia. [13] The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot.com bust. In spring 2005, economic growth had resumed in California at 4.3 percent. [14]Resources and consumption California’s crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in six geological basins in the Central Valley and along the coast. California has more than a dozen of the United States' largest oil fields, including the Midway-Sunset Oil Field, the second largest oil field in the contiguous United States. Although California is a leader in some energy-intensive industries, the state has one of the lowest per capita energy consumption rates in the country. This is in spite of the fact that more motor vehicles are registered in California than any other state, and worker commute times are among the longest in the country.Petroleum California’s crude oil output accounts for more than one-tenth of total U.S. production. Drilling operations are concentrated primarily in Kern County and the Los Angeles basin. Although there is also substantial offshore oil and gas production, there is a permanent moratorium on new offshore oil and gas leasing in California waters and a deferral of leasing in federal waters. California ranks third in the United States in petroleum refining capacity and accounts for more than one-tenth of total U.S. capacity. In addition to oil from California, California’s refineries process crude oil from Alaska and foreign suppliers.Natural gas California natural gas production typically is less than 2 percent of total annual U.S. production and satisfies less than one-fifth of state demand. California receives most of its natural gas by pipeline from production regions in the Rocky Mountains, the Southwest, and western Canada.Electricity Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of the state's electricity generation. California is one of the largest hydroelectric power producers in the United States, and with adequate rainfall, hydroelectric power typically accounts for close to one-fifth of its electricity generation. Due to strict emission laws, only a few small coal-fired power plants operate in California. The Mojave Desert is one of the best sites in the United States for solar power plants.

Список литературы

1. Government Code Section 420-429.8. State of California Legislative Council. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
2. California — Languages. Census. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
3. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011 (CSV). 2011 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division (December 2011). Retrieved December 21, 2011.
4. Elevations and Distances in the United States. United States Geological Survey (2001). Retrieved October 21, 2011.
5. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
6. The summit of Mount Whitney is the highest point in the Contiguous United States.
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