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Эссе на тему взаимодействия и взаимозависимости разных ветвей власти в американской политической системе, на основе высказывания американского президента Т.Рузвельта: "О, если бы я только мог быть и за Президента, и за Конгресс одновременно, хотя бы 10 минут" ...
Summing up, we note that there is no equal partnership between Congress and the President. In the system of separation of powers a clear advantage is on the side of the Executive, legislators are pushed into the background. This trend is, apparently, irreversible. The position of the President as the chief Executive predetermines the dominance in the sphere of lawmaking, budget and Finance, public administration and foreign policy. Congress can't reverse the balance of power between the legislative and executive power.
In conclusion we present extremely precise statement owned by Harry S. Truman about presidential role in the governmental system in USA: “The people can never understand why the President does not use his powers to make them behave. Well all the president is, is a glorifiedpublic relations man who spends time flattering, kissing, and kicking people to get them to do what they are supposed to do anyway.
The governmental system of the United States is based on the principle of separation of powers. According to this principle, the legislative power belongs to Congress, Executive — to President and Judicial — to Supreme Court and lower Federal courts. The functioning of the system of separation of powers is supplemented by the action of the system of “checks and balances”, a special constitutional methods and forms, allowing neutralizing or deterring the actions of any of the branches of government. The Congress’ most effective mean of influence was and remains the “power of the purse”. The President, in turn, was granted by the right of veto. Finally, the U.S. Supreme court was endowed with the right of constitutional review. Anyway, it clearly shows the intricate interweaving of rights an d responsibilities of all three branches of government, and it cannot but affect their efficiency. It is about this complicated interaction famous Theodore Roosevelt said: “Oh, if I could be a President and Congress, too, for just ten minutes!
Фрагмент работы для ознакомления
LawmakingAccording to the Constitution, the adoption of laws is the competence of Congress. The procedure for the adoption of legislation by the Congress is well-known, in the framework of this report we will consider the interaction of the President with Congress. According to some estimates, up to 30% of all bills are paid in Congress upon the initiative of the President or subordinate bodies. Formally, Executive power is deprived of the right of legislative initiative. One should be a Senator or a member of the House of Representatives to introduce the project to the house. However, this circumstance does not reduce the effectiveness of the initiatives of the President. The Congress approves up to 50% of the projects proposed by the Executive. On the contrary, a veto remains the most powerful means of influence of the President, which Congress can overcome only by re-approval of the bill by a two-thirds majority of the votes. By the way, Congress manages to overcome the less than 3% of the total number of presidential veto.Budget and FinanceUnder the Constitution the President has no authority in the areas of budget and Finance. Only Congress may lay and collect taxes, duties, and taxes and excise taxes. However, since the 1921 budget preparation and subsequently bigger financial bills was delegated to the Executive. In fact, the initiative passed to the President in this area, although the Congress retains a high enough role. Considering the question of interaction between the President and Congress in making budget, it is necessary to say a few words about impoundment – refusal of President to spend the money allocated by law by Congress. The President should visit the Congress with a special message that explains the reasons that caused the rejection of the use of non-spending the allocated funds. To overcome the presidential "sabotage” the Congress approves the new bill.The management authoritiesThe public administration is under the presidential control. In fact, the President produces the appointment to political positions in the state apparatus upon the advice of the Senate. It should be noted that legislation restricts the freedom of the President in the appointment of officials in some way. The Constitution does not define the procedure of removal of officers, but judicial interpretation recognizes this right as chief Executive. The President jealously guarding his power in the sphere of state control, often denying the right of access to some documents to Congress.
“Oh, if I could be a President and Congress, too, for just ten minutes!”
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