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Pertinent use of the computer at a lesson of a foreign language is advisable as the main component of the content of training in a foreign language is training in different types of speech activity in speaking, to audition, reading, the letter, namely, not only to ability to listen to a foreign-language role, but also allows the pupil to receive necessary data of the help character, most to say phrases in a foreign language in a microphone, and also to carry out grammatical exercises, to watch and analyze video movies and video topics. Moreover, by means of the computer it is easier to organize independent work of students, as at a lesson, and out-of-class. Application of information computer technologies in aspect of work on audition and reading – receptive types of speech act ...
Chapter 1. The content of teaching foreign languages in philological education 6
1.1. Text role when training in a foreign language 6
Features of the content of training in foreign languages philological education 6
1.2. The role of a teacher in training texts 8
1.3.Grammar of the text (types of texts and their grammatical features) 9
1.3.1. Context 11
1.4. Receptive types of speech activity. Reading 13
Training in reading on the basis of critical thinking. System of exercises 14
1.4.1.Development of critical thinking on the basis of equipment of analytical reading. Home reading 18
Chapter 2. Methods and techniques of teaching intercultural communication students on the basis of the text 20
2.1 . Practical application of fiction in the course of English studying 20
2.2. Training in reading (E.N. Solovov. Technique of training in foreign languages. Basic course of lectures. – M.: Education, 2006. Training in reading. Lecture 7) 25
2.3.Skills of independent work with information resources. Technique of work on texts of reference character 26
2.4.Strategy of the translation from original language 29
The translation from original language to other languages 34
2.4.1.Form and content ratio in a target text 34
Concept of an equivalent when transfer 34
2.4.2.Translation transformations in translation 37
List of references 47
Relevance of research
Within the concept of modernization of Russian education the modern technologies applied in educational process, take a leading place. Scope of modern technologies in educational process, certainly, process of training in which all his subjects – teachers are involved, pupils and parents (if it is a question of preschool and school education). Within this work we will be limited to a question of application of modern techniques in educational process concerning such subject as a foreign language as training in a foreign language allows to use today the most advanced, modern techniques, helping to achieve the main objectives of training in a foreign language – development of skills and abilities of the communicative statement.
The foreign language skill s, at least one, are vital for the modern expert – the creative person acting on the international scene: at conferences, meetings, exhibitions, fairs, seminars, presentations – and showing the talent to the whole world, defending the creative identity on the scale of universal culture. Language of the international communication conducting in the world, certainly, there is an English.
Use of computer technologies in the sphere of training I became a foreign language object of comprehensive investigation of experts rather recently, however today it is especially actual as various the Internet resources, a large number of training materials on CD disks, set a task of carrying out complex researches of opportunities and features of their application in educational process.
From where and how we scoop information?
First of all, from mass media: radio, television, press. These sources are available to each of us. We receive information by visual and acoustical perception. Then we process it, we analyze and we put the received results into practice. That, how adequately and productively occurs perception of information and its subsequent analysis, depends on level of interaction of substantial aspect of a concrete piece of information and our life experience.
As life experience at the child is insignificant, he can't lean on it in the course of processing of received information. In this regard the task of the teacher is that he has to use, first, such lexical material which would correspond to age features of pupils and, secondly, in every possible way to promote development in school students of associative thinking. The teacher realizes this task by means of different types of tasks and the exercises aimed at the development both of associative, and creative thinking. After all today more and more attention it is given to formation at school students of individual creative thinking.
In this work process of training in a receptive type of speech activity – to reading – in aspect of technology of critical thinking with application of modern computer technologies is considered. The specified problem is especially actual for process of training in a foreign language, however and to questions of studying of Russian such approach is actual.
The content of training in a foreign language promotes realization of the practical purposes aimed at the development in pupils of culture of communication in the course of formation of all aspects of a foreign-language discourse. It, in turn, assumes formation of language skills (phonetic, grammatical, lexical), and also their use in speech activity. Texts, subjects, lexicon, etc. are selected taking into account their use in formation of all types of speech activity (speaking, reading, the letter, audition), developments of socio-cultural skills and abilities. Thus, the contents (as well as structure) contents of training in foreign languages is defined, first of all, by the practical purposes of training and, secondly, continuity between grade levels.
In this work the work technique with texts of reference character as receptive type of speech activity as means of formation of critical thinking of students of teacher training college in the course of training in English is considered. Relevance of this problem consists in efficiency of application of technology of critical thinking as one to from types of intellectual activity of the person who is characterized by high level of perception, understanding, objectivity of approach to an information field surrounding it.
The content of training in a foreign language promotes realization of the practical purposes aimed at the development in pupils of culture of communication in the course of formation of all aspects of a foreign-language discourse. It, in turn, assumes formation of language skills (phonetic, grammatical, lexical), and also their use in speech activity. Texts, subjects, lexicon, etc. are selected taking into account their use in formation of all types of speech activity (speaking, reading, the letter, audition), developments of socio-cultural skills and abilities. Thus, the contents (as well as structure) contents of training in foreign languages is defined, first of all, by the practical purposes of training and, secondly, continuity between grade levels. in a way, it is very important to develop the most effective approach to training in foreign languages (a methodological basis which defines tactics and training strategy, and also selection of methods of training), otherwise, to promote formation of foreign-language communicative competence, as approach to training in a foreign language – the theoretical base which is cornerstone of a technique of teaching of a foreign language. Approaches to training foreign языкам – a set. However at the heart of everyone it is possible to allocate linguistic, didactic and psycholinguistic aspects (I. A. Kolesnikova, O. A. Dolgin, E.G. Azimov, A.N. Schukin). Linguists consider communication as realization of communicative function of language in a speech situation; psychologists – as interaction between people for the purpose of exchange of information and establishment of contacts. Psycholinguistic approach unites two above stated. However it is necessary to consider not only linguistic and psychological aspects of verbal communication, but also social and cultural that gives the chance to model a real situation of communication. Thus, communication – communication – has to be considered in unity of all its parties, namely: communication and perceptions.
Not without reason, a lot of attention to interactive types of work – to group discussions, conversations "at a round table" is paid today, to cases, etc. Work with texts of reference character, i.e. their reading, the analysis, use – is a receptive type of cornerstone at the heart of which skills of a foreign-language discourse are and in which the features investigated in this work are inherent.
The purpose of this research is the analysis of modern working methods with the text at English lessons at high school.
development a work technique with texts of reference character as means of formation of critical thinking of students of teacher training college in the course of training in English.
The purpose caused the following research problems:
- to analyze concept of foreign-language communicative competence
- to characterize reading as a receptive type of speech activity
- to show a work technique with texts as means for development of critical thinking of pupils.
- to give concept definition
- to prove need of practical application of computer technologies as effective component in improvement of quality of training in a foreign language
- to show a work technique with texts of reference character as means for development of critical thinking of pupils in the course of training in a foreign-language discourse
- to analyze concept of foreign-language communicative competence of aspect of training in English on the basis of reading as receptive type of speech activity
- to reveal a role of technology of development of critical thinking in the course of training in English on the basis of texts of reference character
-to analyse problems of equivalence of the translation.
- characterize levels and types of equivalence.
The research hypothesis which the author of this research puts in the forefront and during a reasoning does attempts to prove, consists that the work technique with texts of reference character is an effective remedy of formation of critical thinking of students of teacher training college in the course of training in English.
Object of research is the foreign language as means for training in receptive kinds of activity (reading) on the basis of equipment of critical thinking.
Object of research are texts of reference character in English and work methods with them for development of critical thinking in the course of training in a foreign language.
Novelty of research consists in development of an effective technique of work with texts of directory character in English in aspect of development of creative abilities of the students based on ability to apply modern educational technologies, somehow: equipment of critical thinking and method of "brain storm" for search of new, creative solutions of the questions arising in the course of work on texts of reference character.
The methodological basis of research is made by works of prominent scientists-linguists: N. D. Nikandrov, L. A. Petrovskogo, Yu. M. Zhukov, P. V. Rastyannikov, Tuktagulova, M. I. Lisina, Yu. V. Kasatkina, V. Kanal and M. Sueyn, etc. which consider that formation of representations of the person about that, properly to use language forms in a real situation of communication, namely: the analysis, judgment and giving (the communicative act) language statement - everything makes a basis of the communicative competence including along with productive types of speech activity (speaking and the letter) two types of receptive activity (perception of the speech aurally – audition – and reading). Most fully L. F. Bachmann characterizes communicative competence. The researcher includes language, discourse, colloquial, pragmatic (practical), social and linguistic, strategic and cogitative competence in this concept.
The methodological basis of research is made by works of prominent scientists-linguists: N. D. Nikandrov, L. A. Petrovskogo, Yu. M. Zhukov, P. V. Rastyannikov, Tuktagulova, M. I. Lisina, Yu. V. Kasatkina, V. Kanal and M. Sueyn, etc. which consider that formation of representations of the person about that, properly to use language forms in a real situation of communication, namely: the analysis, judgment and giving (the communicative act) logiko-language statement - everything makes a basis of the communicative competence including along with productive types of speech activity (speaking and the letter) two types of receptive activity (perception of the speech aurally – audition – and reading). Most fully L. F. Bachmann characterizes communicative competence. The researcher includes language, discourse, colloquial, practical, social and linguistic, strategic and cogitative competence in this concept. That fact that And. B. Dobrovich considers communicative competence as constant readiness for dialogue and explains this situation from positions of thinking, (logic), deserves special attention as the communication purpose as "infinite process of creation of phrases, an implementer of the cogitative contents" is modeling of the finished language statement.
Фрагмент работы для ознакомления
Training in reading (E.N. Solovov. Technique of training in foreign languages. Basic course of lectures. – M.: Education, 2006. Training in reading. Lecture 7)Reading as independent type of speech activity and as means of formation of adjacent language and speech skills. The author specifies that we read to receive information, to perform a task in the text or it is simple to read, derive pleasure from reading. Especially important at the initial stage of training in reading to create equipment of reading on the basis of a certain system of exercises on development of speech skills and abilities. Reading can be aloud and about itself, there are parameters of an assessment of equipment of reading, such as a certain number of words in minute (reading speed), observance of norms of a punctuation, an accent, understanding of the read. The author writes that special requirements are imposed to educational texts: to the volume of the text which is defined by its format, however the short text can be much more informativny the long text; moreover, too long texts tire, they should be divided into parts, chapters, etc. When reading it is necessary to allocate the main thesis read, text subject, its perspective. There is a number of exercises on identification of the above parameters, for example:- determine by heading a text perspective, its semantic filling for whom this text is written, in what situation it can be used. Very important point is degree of authenticity of the text of what it will be a question below. Here it should be noted that letters, advertizing, newspaper articles belong to authentic materials. At the same time real tasks which assume performance of certain exercises in the conditions of the most approximate to the natural belong to authentic tasks. Today it is possible to meet the concept "partially authentic texts" - they are suitable for performance of tasks directed on development of foreign-language communicative competence, however are connected with overcoming of certain lexical and grammatical difficulties.2.3.Skills of independent work with information resources Purposes: formation of initial idea of information, its systematization and ways of storage; training in initial skills and abilities of use of library tools for search and a choice of information and to work bases with the text; assistance to development of informative activity of pupils; encouragement of interest to the book and reading.Contents: Initial idea of information. Variety of information resources. Traditional resources: books, magazines. Plates, filmstrips, cartridges with video and audio recordings. Computer as instrument of management of information. Multimedia resources.Concept about library. Instructions for use library. Subscription and reading room. Information systematization. Choice of books in library. Open access to book fund: order of arrangement of books in fund, half-internal dividers. Bookmarks. Book exhibitions. Book structure as tool of information activities. Cover (cover), title page, back, preface and epilog, table of contents (contents), summary.Book decorating. Illustrations. Types of illustrations: photos, cards, drawings, reproductions, etc. Illustration role in perception of the text.Concepts: information, data carrier, book, library, subscription, reading room, cover (cover), title page, back, preface and epilog, table of contents (contents), summary.Skills: using library, independent work with the book: use of structure of the book for an assessment and the characteristic of its contents."Work with the Book as One of the Directions of Information Activities" module Purposes: acquaintance to the main types and types of literature; formation of skills of independent work with the book; formation of skills of critical thinking; formation of interest to reading; development of informative activity of school students.Contents: Main types and types of literature. Scientific and informative literature for children. Difference of scientific and informative literature from the art. Reference books. Concept about encyclopedias, dictionaries, reference books. Structure of reference books: alphabetic arrangement of a material, indexes, indexes. Concept about periodicals. Newspaper, magazine: reader's appointment, registration, contents. Children's newspapers and magazines. Concepts: dictionary, encyclopedia, reference books, popular scientific literature, periodicals, newspaper, magazine, heading, article, note. Skills: independent work with reference, scientific and informative books; ability to raise questions to the book."Information, Its Storage, Systematization and Ways of Transfer" module Purposes: formation of initial idea of information and information resources; formation of bases of information outlook through idea of information and its role in information society; knowledge acquisition about stories of the book and other data carriers; formation of abilities of work with the book as information source.Contents: Concept of information. Information as "data on objects and the environment phenomena, their parameters, properties and states which perceive information systems (the live organisms operating cars, etc.) in the course of activity and work". Value of information in human life and in society development. Information and knowledge. Variety and features of the organization of information resources in the conditions of distribution of new technologies of collecting, storage, processing and information distribution. Ways of the organization of information. Systematization and storage of information resources.Traditional and nonconventional data carriers. Book and library history. Clay books. Library of the tsar Ashshurbanipal. Libraries of Egypt. Ramesses's II book-depository – "A drugstore as a hobby". Books and libraries of an antique era. Birchbark manuscripts in Ancient Russia. Middle Ages libraries. Books on parchment. The invention of printing - one of the largest cultural and historical events of the XV century. The book in the modern world – information and knowledge source. Modern data carriers. Emergence of nonconventional data carriers. Information on plates, audio cassettes, videotapes. Computer role in storage and information distribution. Multimedia resources. Possibilities of multimedia. Concepts: archive, document, library, video, information resources, information, computer, data carrier, multimedia, information search, saving of information, information systematization.Skills of independent work with information resources: abilities to distinguish and use features of various data carriers; skills of work with the text, search and a choice of necessary information. Module "Information search. Library as information retrieval system"Purposes: concept formation about library as to the information retrieval system; formation of skills of search, assessment and information extraction.Contents: System of libraries and information institutes: scientific, universal, educational libraries. Library subscription. Reading room. Specialized departments: department of literature of art, technical literature, foreign literature, local history literature. Information search in libraries. Principles of systematization of information resources. Library and bibliographic classification and its use in libraries. Structure of library stocks. The principles of arrangement of literature in fund. Half-internal dividers.Electronic libraries. Features of systematization of information in electronic libraries. Search query. Keyword.Concepts: library stocksperiodic, acyclic. Main types of literature: educational, help, scientific, popular scientific, art. Style features of various types of literature. Reference books. Differentiation of reference books depending on appointment and the contents. Types of a reference media for pupils. Encyclopedias universal (BRE, DE) and branch (historical, literary, musical, etc.) Principles of use of the help device of encyclopedias. Dictionaries, their appointment, structure and the principles of work with them. Features of use of information resources on electronic media. Hypertext. Electronic dictionaries, reference books, encyclopedias. Merits and demerits of electronic media of information. Popular scientific and scientific and informative literature. Use of popular scientific literature by preparation of reports and papers. Rules of citing of the text. Registration of quotes. Work methods with information. Ways of reading (viewing, selective and full reading, studying). Use of knowledge of structure of books during the work with them. Use of explanatory notes of the book. Auxiliary indexes (nominal, subject, chronological, place names, etc.) Assessment of information resources. Text analysis.Periodicals in library. Profile, reader's purpose of periodicals. Trade magazines. Youth magazines. Work methods with periodicals. Use of a systematic card file of newspaper and journal articles for information search.Concepts: book explanatory notes, bibliographic links, bibliography, hypertext, electronic editions. Skills: estimates, processings and uses of information resources on various carriers; usings reference media; works with the text.Module "Information search. Help and bibliographic device and library information retrieval system"Purposes: acquaintance to the help and bibliographic office of libraries and its role by information search; formation of skills of use of catalogs as information retrieval tools.Contents: Concept of the help and bibliographic office of library. Appointment and principles of creation of library catalogs. Types of catalogs. Alphabetical catalog, its appointment. Systematic catalog and its functions. Systematization of books on branches of knowledge. The dividers reflecting structure of the catalog. Alphabetic index. Systematic card file of journalese articles. Subject card files.Information retrieval systems. Difference of the help and search device from the information retrieval system. Electronic catalogs and databases. Features of work with bibliographic databases. Search query and scheme of its performance. Technique of drawing up keywords.Concepts: algorithm of information retrieval activity, catalog, card file, help and bibliographic office of library, information retrieval system, search query, keyword. Skills: uses of library and information retrieval tools."Analysis of Information Resources and Representation of Own Information Product" modulePurposes: improvement of skills of independent work with information resources: search, assessment, processings and information uses; formation of algorithm of information retrieval activity; improvement of abilities of the organization and submission of information in traditional and nonconventional formats.Contents: use of information resources in educational, educational, research activity. Features of use of the printing, oral word, video information, Internet resources.Work methods with information. Fluent reading. Viewing of documents. Analytical reading. Analysis and processing of information resources. The account and systematization of the seen and read resources in traditional and nonconventional formats. Extracts and their systematization. Quotes, their use and registration. Scheduling. Types of the plan (simple and difficult). Plan of the educational text. The plan to the composition. Plan of performance, report, paper.Technique of the formalized preparation of information products. Drawing up summary. Drawing up review of information resources. Bibliographic registration of quotes and extracts. The list of the used literature. Registration of independent work.Forms of representation of results of independent information retrieval activity of school students. Report. Paper. Summary. Review. Presentation. Web page.Skills: the tool: use of catalogs, use of presentation of PowerPoint; the cognitive: ability to choose and estimate relevance of information, ability to synthesize information from various sources."Information Research in Library" modulePurpose: improvement of skills of search, assessment, processing and submission of information. Formation of algorithm of information and search and analytical activity. Contents: Features of work on different types of independent tasks: message, report, paper, composition, research, review, summary, literature review, etc. Main requirements to independent study. Structure of independent study. Algorithm of independent information and research activity. Stages of work on the independent information project. 1 . Definition of a look, purpose, problems of work. Subject formulation. Preliminary plan of work.Definition of sources of information: library, archive, Internet,3 . Viewing and definition of degree of relevance of the found materials. Features of fact-finding reading. Key points of acquaintance with the text: table of contents, introduction, conclusion, summary. Marks, marks, underlining, bookmarks. Viewing of electronic documents. Definition of degree of accuracy, reliability of resources. Key points of determination of authoritativeness of a resource: authorship existence, presence of the return address, existence of links, lack of idle links.4 . Processing of information resources. Studying of literature and materials. Methods of critical reading: text partition on semantic parts, allocation of basic provisions, statement of questions, drawing up comparative schemes, tables, conducting records. 5 . Systematization of materials. Plan specification. Analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification, generalization. Technique of the formalized analysis of scientific documents.6 . The organization and representation of the received results. Representation forms: oral performance, paper option, electronic presentation, multimedia form, etc. Draft copy preparation. Registration of quotes and extracts. The list of the used literature and resources. Registration of final results of information activities. 7 . Assessment of the done work.FORMS OF CONTROL OF KNOWLEDGEControl and diagnostics forms: frontal poll, testing, creative work, individual and collective creative project, self-assessment. Types of creative works:- paper,- summary,- the annotated review of literature,- review, - presentation,- website,- project: book, "handbook", thesaurus, magazine, newspaper.2.3.1.Technique of work on texts of reference characterDanish and French influence and competition from other languagesUntil the Danish invasions, Old English was a highly inflected language but appears to have lost many of its grammatical endings in the interaction with Danish, creating a more open or analytic style of language that was further changed by the influence of Norman French after the Conquest 1066. The Middle English period saw a proliferation of regional dialects as earlier forms died out. However, with the rise of London as a metropolis and large-scale immigration from the surrounding area into the city, Midland (roughly corresponding to Mercian of the Old English period) gained predominance and a distinct metropolitan written dialect emerged.For several centuries English was in competition with other languages: first the various Celtic languages of Britain, then Danish, then French as the language of Plantagenet England and Latin as the language of the Church. In Scotland, English was in competition with Gaelic and Welsh as well as French and Latin .Further influencesIn 1362 English replaced French as the language of the law courts of England, although the records continued for some time to be kept in Latin. Geoffrey Chaucer was a court poet at this time and strongly influenced the literary style of the London dialect. When William Caxton set up his printing press in London 1477 the new hybrid language (vernacular English mixed with courtly French and scholarly Latin) became increasingly standardized, and by 1611, when the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible was published, the educated English of the Home Counties and London had become the core of what is now called Standard English. Great dialect variation remained, and still remains, throughout Britain.By the end of the 16th century, English was firmly established in four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, and with the establishment of the colonies in North America in the early 17th century was spoken in what are now the USA, Canada, and the West Indies. Seafaring, exploration, commerce, and colonial expansion in due course took both the standard language and other varieties throughout the world. By the time of Johnson's dictionary (1755) and the American Declaration of Independence (1776), English was international and recognizable as the language we use today.The Danish and French influence and the competition from other languagesUntil the Danish invasion, Old English already I experienced outside influence, however as a result of interaction with Danish, many were lost grammatical the terminations of words. Style of language became more analytical, open. Further under the influence of the French gain of 1066 I underwent further changes. In the period of the Middle Ages, English incorporated many regional dialects as a result of dying off of old forms. However only with the advent of London – the city where numerous immigration from vicinities was flown down, there was a written dialect (Midland – the Old English period). Within several centuries language competed with other languages: first of all, various Celtic languages of Great Britain, Danish while French remained Plantagenet's language in England, and Latin was considered as church language. In Scotland English competed with Gaelic and Welsh, and also French and Latin.Further influenceIn 1362 English replaced French as official language in vessels of England though records it continued to be conducted in Latin. The literary language (style) of Jeffrey Chaucer, the court poet of that time had a great impact on the London dialect. In 1477 William Kekston constructed printing houses in London. There was a modern, hybrid language – English – mix of Middle English language with refined French and scientific Latin. By 1611 when the version of the Bible of the king James was published, in English counties and in London standard English (as now call the "correct" English) was approved. However a large number of dialects remained, and exists still in Britain.By the end of the 16th eyelid, English was strongly approved in four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland, and with the advent of colonies in North America at the beginning of the 17th century I became a spoken language of the USA, Canada, and West Indies. Gradually English was included strongly to the world of opening, navigation, trade and colonial expansion around the world. By then, when the world saw Johnson's dictionary (1755) and the American declaration of Independence (1776), English became the international and conventional language which we use today.Pretranslation analysis1 . This article is © Research Machines plc 2009. All rights reserved. Helicon Publishing is a division of Research Machines plc. http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/English+language2 . 3 . Stylistic characteristicsType of information – factual. Article – encyclopedic.- the informative narration prevails, art and esthetic impact on the reader is absent, the main function consists in the message of data concerning stages of development of English. Lexicon – from the sphere of linguistics, literary criticism and a history (England). - nominal character of a statement of a material, and also prevalence of the combinations as which kernel the noun, especially different types of attributive groups serves.
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