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Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3
Chapter I Architectural Museums
Buckingham Palace……………………………………………………………………………..5
Tower of London……………………………………………………………………………....6
Hampton Court…………………………………………………………………………………9
St. Paul Cathedral……………………………………………………………………………...10
St. James Palace………………………………………………………………………………..13
Westminster Abbey…………………………………………………………………………....14
House of Parliament…………………………………………………………………………...16
Big Ben………………………………………………………………………………………...21
Chapter II. Museums of Arts
National Gallery……………………………………………………………………………….22
Imperial Museum……………………………………………………………………………...25
Museum of London……………………………………………………………………………26
Victoria and Albert Museum…………………………………………………………………..27
The British Museum…………………………………………………………………………...28
The London Palace of The Duke of Wellington………………………………………………30
Bank of England Museum……………………………………………………………………..31
Chapter III. Entertainment Museums
Madame’s Tussaud……………………………………………………………………………32
London Planetarium…………………………………………………………………………..33
London Transport Museum……………………………………………………………………34
Chapter IV. Scientific and Natural Museums
Natural History Museum……………………………………………………………………….35
Science Museum………………………………………………………………………………..37
Chapter V. Museums in honour of famous people
Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Walls……………………………………………………39
Jewish Museum………………………………………………………………………………...41
Dickens’ Museum………………………………………………………………………………43
Freud Museum…………………………………………………………………………….……45
Dr. Johnson House……………………………………………………………………………..47
Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………49
List of used literature…………………………………………………………………………50

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You will when you enter the amazing world of The Natural History Museum.
Whatever you want to know about the natural world, you'll find the answer here. It's a unique museum dedicated to the fantastic story of our planet. Step inside and we'll take you on an unforgettable journey into Earth's past, present and future, exploring its many natural wonders - and uncovering a few of its mysteries too!
Animal, vegetable, mineral and more
Along the way you'll meet the most incredible creatures, both living and extinct. Some you'll know, others you could never even have imagined, except maybe in your nightmares. We'll show you how the jigsaw of life fits together and what happens when it falls apart. Take a trip with us into the centre of the Earth and out again to the far reaches of the universe and discover how our tiny world developed from a tiny, hot fireball into an incredibly diverse living planet. Remember, on our planet, nothing stays the same for long. See how its constantly changing and feel its earth-shattering power.
A Centre of Excellence
Thought by many to be the finest museum of nature in the World, the Natural History Museum opened its doors to the public in 1881. Today, the Museum holds a phenomenal 70 million specimens from all around the world, many displayed in the most imaginative way possible, often using the latest interactive technology.
And that's not all. The Museum plays a significant role in the international scientific community. Behind the scenes, over 300 scientists are working to extend our knowledge of the natural world even further.
Here are a few of the exhibits you'll find at the Natural History Museum:
The Pieces of Life's Jigsaw
It’s enough to step into the leaf factory and you discover how plants turn the sun's energy into food. The Ecology exhibition explores our complex environment and shows how all life on Earth is interlinked.
Meet the Dinosaurs
You can enjoy a face to face encounter with the creatures that continue to excite the imagination of people all around the world. Discover the remarkable links that exist with many of today's animals.
Feel the Force
You may explore the dynamic world beneath your feet, experience an earthquake and see what happens when a volcano erupts.
Journey into the Centre of the Earth
If you step onto the escalator and ride throught the huge Earth sculpture, you suspended high above you. In the Earth Galleries, we'll reveal to you the many secrets of our planet from its beginnings in the "big bang", to its certain death in the future. Along the way explore the dramatic forces that shape the Earth and marvel at the riches within it.
Close Encounters of the Creepy Crawly Kind
Did you know that 80 percent of all animal species are arthropods? You have a chance to meet giant spider crabs, eyelash mites and spiders galore and find out amazing facts about these important creatures.
Science Museum
Situated in Exhibition Road, South Kensington, the Science Museum contains all the wonders of our industrial and technological age. You can see exhibits of early scientific experiments, and many industrial and transport-related exhibits from a full-size replica of Stephenson's Rocket to a detailed reconstruction of the Apollo landing craft.
The Science Museum includes many interactive displays and demonstrations. Ranging over seven floors, you will find items representing every area of the sciences, space travel, computing, medicine, telecommunications, chemistry the list is endless.
The ground floor is devoted to Power, Space and Transport. It’s reasonable to start with James Watt's steam engines first used in the 18th century.
On the mezzanine floor is The Synopsis Gallery, as the name suggests it shows a scaled-down history of science dating from the stone age up to 1914. Also on this floor is the Space exhibition showing the development of rockets from the 18th century.
On the first floor children will make for The Launching Pad; a specially designed play area. Another exciting new gallery on this floor is Challenge of Materials, where there are hands-on displays to be explored and enjoyed. Also on the first floor are, Telecommunications, History of Gas, Agriculture Time Measurement and Food For Thought.
The second floor encompasses Chemistry, Nuclear Physics, Computing, Printing and Ships.The third floor houses Early Scientific Instruments, and has a section on Health Matters. On this floor you can also enjoy the On Air section, set out as a recording studio. The other hands-on experience is Flight Lab, after which you enter the Flight exhibition with aircraft including a full-size model of the aircraft the Wright brothers flew to make their power-assisted flight in 1903.
The fourth and fifth floors sponsored by Wellcome are devoted to Glimpses of Medical History and The Science and Art of Medicine gallery.
In the basement you will find a family picnic area, a hands-on experience for 3-6 year olds, called The Garden, and there is a more advanced section for 7-11 year olds. Here also is The Secret Life of the House.
The latest addition to the Science Museum is the Wellcome Wing, opening in summer 2000. This shows the latest in modern science. There are interactive exhibitions featuring artificial intelligence, digital technology, genetics and brain science.
Chapter V. Museums in honour of famous people
Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms
Europe in the 1920s and 30s was a troubled and volatile place. It was still reeling from the shocking and then-unprecedented destruction of World War One; Nazism was on the rise; undefended cities were being heavily bombarded for the first time.
Against this background, the powers that be within Britain were troubled by the possibility of such enemy air raids on London, and how to ensure government and the military could continue to effectively manage and prosecute a wartime response.
Thus, in 1938 the cabinet War Rooms were created. Located on the edge of St. James Park in the basement of the Office of Public Works (now the Treasury Building), they became fully operational in 1939 with the outbreak of World War Two.
The facility provided the vital ability to maintain effective command and control of the war effort. The Map Room was the hub of daily activities - large scale maps of Britain, Europe and the Far Eastern theatres of war were pasted to the walls; troop movements and battle plans were detailed and perfected from the strategic level.
After VJ day, the Map Room was left almost exactly as it was when its doors were closed for the final time. The scene that awaits visitors to the Cabinet War Rooms today is that which was left in August 1945, down to placement of each book and map pin.
Such was the importance Churchill attached to the Map Room, his own room is to be found immediately next to it, with an adjoining door. Here Churchill had his bed, together with a desk and meeting area.
Further down the corridor is the Cabinet Room, where Churchill often held meetings into the small hours with key advisors, selected cabinet members and chiefs of staff.
The War Rooms were significantly expanded during the early forties, adding many more rooms and facilities, not least the Transatlantic Telephone room where a securely encrypted hot line phone to the American President was to be found. The Chiefs of Staff Conference room was added in 1941 as part of what is now known as the Churchill Suite. This gave the heads of the armed forces a place to meet, confer, monitor and plan the execution of the war effort.
Over the course of the war the Cabinet War Rooms tripled in size before the lights were turned off and the doors finally closed in August 1945, following the announcement of victory in the Far East.
The War rooms were preserved due to Parliament declaring them a site of National Significance in 1948. Nearly forty years later, in 1984, areas of the Cabinet War Rooms were opened to the public by the Imperial War Museum. Sixteen years later, permission was granted for the whole site to be opened and with it an extensive restoration programme was begun. The first phase was completed in 2003 with the central focus being the 'Churchill Suite'.
Phase Two saw the completion of the Churchill Museum. It was opened by HRH Queen Elizabeth II in February 2005, in the fortieth anniversary year of Churchill's death. This is an integral part of the Cabinet War rooms and is the first major museum dedicated to Churchill's life.
Jewish Museum
The Jewish Museum opens a window onto the history and religious life of the Jewish community in Britain and beyond. Founded in 1932, the Museum has one of the world's finest collections of Jewish Ceremonial Art. In 1995 it relocated to attractive new premises in Camden. The Museum has also amalgamated with the former London Museum of Jewish Life on a two-site basis. The combined Museum represents an important new educational and cultural resource for London.
The History Gallery traces the story of the Jewish community in Britain from the Norman Conquest to recent times. Highlights include medieval notched wooden tax receipts; eighteenth century portraits; a Queen Anne silver tray and loving cups presented to the Lord Mayors of London by the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue. Through an interactive map, visitors can plot population changes over the centuries.
The aim of The Ceremonial Art Gallery is to illustrate and explain Jewish religious practice with objects of rarity and beauty. These include a 16th century Italian synagogue ark, Italian cradle charms, the oldest English made Hanucah lamp, embroidered textiles and illuminated marriage contracts.
Audio visual programmes present the cycle of Jewish Festivals and of Jewish life 'From the Cradle to the Grave'. The Temporary Exhibition Gallery accommodates an exciting programme of changing exhibitions, designed to illustrate different facets of Jewish history and culture, in Britain and overseas.
Jewish Museum Finchley
This location based within a vibrant Jewish community centre in North London, houses the museum's social history collections. These include an Oral History Archive with some 400 tape-recorded memories, a Photographic Archive (with over 15,000 images) and a wide range of documents and artefacts, reflecting the diverse roots and heritage of Jews in Britain. Here you can explore the history of Jewish immigration and settlement in London, and step back in time to view reconstructions of tailoring and cabinet-making workshops from the Jewish East End. There are hands-on activities for children and a children's treasure trail is available.
Holocaust education is a major feature of the Museum's work, with exhibitions and educational programmes relating to the Holocaust and the experience of refugees from Nazism. The Museum has a Holocaust Education Gallery which has as its focus a moving display about a London born Holocaust survivor, Leon Greenman.
The Museum has an active education and outreach programme designed for all ages. It offers special exhibitions, travelling displays, guided walks of Jewish London, educational workshops and cultural activities.
Dickens House Museum
Opened in 1925 as the last surviving home of Charles Dickens, the Dickens Museum continues to be a favourite of bibliophiles from all around the world. In it, he wrote Oliver Twist, whose effects have since coloured the Victorian age forever. Visitors can see paintings, rare editions, manuscripts and original furniture, plus more details about the famous author.
The Charles Dickens Museum in London is the world's most important collection of material relating to the great Victorian novelist and social commentator. The only surviving London home of Dickens (from 1837 until 1839) was opened as a Museum in 1925 and is still welcoming visitors from all over the world in an authentic and inspiring surrounding. On four floors, visitors can see paintings, rare editions, manuscripts, original furniture and many items relating to the life of one of the most popular and beloved personalities of the Victorian age.
Charles Dickens and his family lived at 48 Doughty Street between April 1837 - exactly a year after his marriage to Catherine - and December 1839. This coincided with a period of increased prosperity for the young novelist. The serialisation of The Pickwick Papers was such a success that the move from the rather cramped chambers of the Furnival's Inn, Holborn was made possible. Doughty Street was at that time a private street, sealed off at both ends by gates, which were manned by porters.
Although his period of residency at number 48 was relatively short compared to his other homes, he published and completed some of his most famous works there, including The Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist and Nicholas Nichleby. It was an extremely busy and productuve period of his career.
Dickens's family expanded with his fame, and after his third child was born in October 1839, he began looking for more spacious accommodation, which by then he could easily afford. A letter describes: "A house of great promise (and great premium) 'undeniable' situation, and excessive splendour is in view."
This was 1 Devonshire Terrace, Regents Park, to which the family moved at the end of 1839. It was demolished in 1959.
The Doughty Street house itself came under threat of demolition in 1923, but was saved by the Dickens Fellowship (founded in 1902), who raised the mortgage and bought the freehold. The house was renovated and the Charles Dickens Museum (then the Dickens House Museum) was opened, under the direction of an independent trust.
The Museum hosts many events, including readings, walks, lectures, guided tours and workshops. The works and characters of Charles Dickens come to life in our readings. Our walks through Dickensian London take you on a journey into the past. Explore the city of Oliver Twist and David Copperfield, or lose yourself in the fogs of legal London. Lectures and courses are organized by the Museum and the Dickens Fellowship. Specialists will lecture on Dickens in general or specific themes.
Freud Museum
Museum in house where Sigmund Freud once lived and practised psychoanalysis. You can wander the intimate hallways where Freud once walked, gaze at his bookshelf, lay back on his couch, and gaze out the windows of his garden. Not a museum for high-flying kicks, but surely a treat for Freud-lovers around the world.
The Freud Museum, at 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, was the home of Sigmund Freud and his family when they escaped Nazi annexation of Austria in 1938. It remained the family home until Anna Freud, the youngest daughter, died in 1982. The centerpiece of the museum is Freud's library and study, preserved just as it was during his lifetime.
It contains Freud's remarkable collection of antiquities: Egyptian; Greek; Roman and Oriental. Almost two thousand items fill cabinets and are ranged on every surface. There are rows of ancient figures on the desk where Freud wrote until the early hours of the morning. The walls are lined with shelves containing Freud's large library of reference books. 
The house is also filled with memories of his daughter, Anna, who lived there for 44 years and continued to develop her pioneering psychoanalytic work, especially with children. It was her wish that the house become a museum to honour her illustrious father. The museum is now being developed as a cultural and research center of outstanding value to the professional community. The Freud's were fortunate to be able to bring all their furniture and household effects to London: there were splendid Biedermeier chests, tables and cupboards, and a fine collection of 18th and 19th-century Austrian painted country furniture. 
Undoubtedly the most famous piece of furniture in all the collection is Freud's psychoanalytic couch, on which all of Freud's patients reclined. The couch is remarkably comfortable and is covered with a richly coloured Iranian rug with chenille cushions piled on top. Other fine Oriental rugs, Heriz and Tabriz, cover the floor and tables. 
The Freud Museum's central function is to celebrate the life and work of Sigmund and Anna Freud. The museum organizes active programmes of research and publication. It has an education service which organizes seminars, conferences and special visits to the museum. 
Dr Johnson's House
Dr Johnson’s House is one of the few residential houses of its age still surviving in the City of London. Built in 1700, it was a home and workplace for Samuel Johnson from 1748-1759, and it was here that he compiled the first comprehensive English Dictionary. Now restored to its original condition, the house contains panelled rooms, a pine staircase, and a collection of period furniture, prints and portraits. Situated to the north of Fleet Street, the house is found among a maze of courtyards and passages that are a reminder of historic London.
Samuel Johnson was born on 18th September 1709 in the cathedral city of Lichfield, Staffordshire. Samuel’s early life was beset by ill health. His eyesight and hearing were poor throughout his life. He was educated at Lichfield Grammar School and Pembroke College, Oxford, but poverty obliged him to leave Oxford without a degree. In 1735, Johnson married Elizabeth Porter, a widow more than twenty years his senior. Following an unsuccessful attempt to run a school, Johnson with his friend, the actor David Garrick, travelled to London. Johnson struggled to support himself through journalism. He was a contributor to The Gentleman’s Magazine, then based at St John's Gate, and it was at this time that he wrote his two best known poems, London and The Vanity of Human Wishes. Johnson was commissioned to write a Dictionary of the English Language by a syndicate of printers. He rented 17 Gough Square, and with the help of his six amanuenses, compiled the Dictionary in the garret. He lived at Gough Square for over ten years, writing his Rambler and Idler essays and his novel Rasselas.
After the death of his beloved wife, in 1752, his Jamaican servant, Francis Barber joined him. Many friends were entertained at the house, including Joshua Reynolds, Dr Charles Burney and the Blue Stocking Elizabeth Carter. Dr Johnson often gave shelter to friends in need. It was only in 1762, when George III granted him an annual pension of £300 that Johnson was able to live more comfortably. The famous "Club" was formed, with friends such as Oliver Goldsmith and Edmund Burke. It was also at this time that Johnson became friends with a young Scottish lawyer named James Boswell, who later became the best known of Johnson’s biographers. Despite his age, in 1773 Johnson set out with Boswell for a three month tour of the Scottish Highlands and Islands. Two years later, he was granted an honorary degree by Oxford University. Johnson published his annotated Shakespeare in 1765 and Lives of the Poets in 1779-1781. He died in 1784, and is buried at Westminster Abbey.
Dr Johnson left Gough Square in 1759, and moved to rooms in Holborn. The history of the house since his departure is somewhat obscure, but it is known that in the nineteenth century, it was used as a hotel, a print shop and a storehouse. By the time the Liberal Member of Parliament Cecil Harmsworth bought the house, it was decayed and fit only for demolition. Harmsworth restored the house, preserving almost every original feature, and it was opened to the public for the first time in 1912. At the same time, a cottage was built as the Curator's residence. The City of London suffered extensive damage during the 1939-45 war, and Dr Johnson’s House was nearly destroyed on three occasions during the bombing of 1940-41. The House was saved by the courage of the Auxiliary Fire Service, who was using the House as a rest centre and arts club. As in Johnson’s day, the house had become a place for friends to meet and talk.
The bomb damage was repaired with a grant from the Pilgrim Trust and War Damage Insurance. Extensive restoration was carried out to Dr Johnson’s House and the Curator’s cottage in the 1990’s, with help from the Corporation of London and other benefactors. Dr Johnson’s House Trust is still administered by the Harmsworth family.
II. Practical part
Conclusions
It is necessary to stress that the author manages to highlight only some issues concerning London Museums while the number of them is really enormous and the variety is incredible. The main aim was to see the most remarkable and memorable. Actually, plenty interpretations and qualifications exist if we speak about museums, so it’s very arguable whether some sightseeing or pieces of attraction can be related to ‘museums society’ so to say. The author concludes that London itself as a city is a museum under the opened sky in spite of constant raining. Indeed, the number of architectural ensembles and palaces is also fabulous that gives us a reason to consider London to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
Taking into account aims that the author set from the very beginning it is necessary now to conclude whether all tasks have been fulfilled within this paper or not that is a general rule for a scientific work.
Undoubtedly describing so many various categories of museums author manages to prove that museums serve for the sake of health of the nation and as the part of the worldwide honoured heritage that needs to be carefully preserved and be proud of.
The author also manages somehow to show how different museums can be and initial assertion that term ‘museum’ is very contradictory and has many interpretations makes a sense.
One more conclusion that author sums up from the paper is that it would be more expedient if some parts of the paper will be accompanied by visual presentations in PowerPoint or any other format because it allows students to be affirmed precisely that what was said in the paper is true and it helps to memorize this material better and more comprehensively from the pedagogical point of view.
It was also reasonable to divide this paper into different chapters so that it makes easy for children to remember and sort out museums as well as it contributes to creation of more fruitful visual presentations. It’s worth diving lessons using the similar structural scheme so that children do not mix up museums and names. It is considered to be good to include architectural ensembles as museums themselves under the open sky because it’s one of the main pearl of any city that makes it unrepeatable and unique.
It provided children with a chance to compare how museums in London distinguish from ours (regarding religion, styles, historical epoch, mentality, climate etc.) and thereafter comprehend what should be done to raise people’s interests to them. Descriptions in this paper inspire the desire to visit all these museums and London itself to see with your own eyes that all this exist in the way how it is described in the paper.
What also should be stressed that the work presents high value not only for children or young people but for people of all ages who are interested in history, culture and heritage of Great Britain and world culture in general. Therefore it would be a good contribution to humanitarian education and world-outlook of children especially those who are interested in Arts and Culture.
List of used literature
1. General Information // The Whole London, Escudo de Ora, London, 2000.
2. The National Gallery Companion Guide. New Revised Edition, London, 1994
3. The Kings and Queens of England, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1995
4. Carla Yanni ‘Nature's Museums: Victorian Science and the Architecture of Display’, London, 2004
5. Ruth Gruber ‘Virtually Jewish’ London: Routledge, 2002
6. Sarah Johnstone, Tom Masters, Martin Hughes Lonely Planet London, London, 2004
Ресурсы информационной сети Internet
7. Historic London // http://www.londontourist.org/historic.html
8. Westminster Abbey // http://www.westminster-abbey.org/
9. National Gallery of London // http://www.nationgallery.org.uk/
10. The Museum of London // http://www.aboutbritain.com/MuseumofLondon.htm
11. Apsley House // http://www.aboutbritain.com/ApsleyHouse.htm
12. London Transport Museum // http://www.ltmuseum.co.uk/collections/collections/vehicles.shtml
13. Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms http://www.aboutbritain.com/ChurchillMuseumAndCabinetWarRooms.htm
14. The British Museum // http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk
15. Freud Museum // http://www.freud.org.uk
Historic London // http://www.londontourist.org/historic.html
The Kings and Queens of England, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1995
Westminster Abbey // http://www.westminster-abbey.org/
National Gallery of London // http://www.nationgallery.org.uk/
The National Gallery Companion Guide. New Revised Edition, London, 1994.
Ibid.
The National Gallery Companion Guide. New Revised Edition, London, 1994.
The Museum of London // http://www.aboutbritain.com/MuseumofLondon.htm
The British Museum // http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk
Apsley House // http://www.aboutbritain.com/ApsleyHouse.htm
London Transport Museum // http://www.ltmuseum.co.uk/collections/collections/vehicles.shtml
Carla Yanni ‘Nature's Museums: Victorian Science and the Architecture of Display’, London, 2004.
Carla Yanni ‘Nature's Museums: Victorian Science and the Architecture of Display’, London, 2004.
Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms http://www.aboutbritain.com/ChurchillMuseumAndCabinetWarRooms.htm
Ruth Gruber ‘Virtually Jewish’ London: Routledge, 2002
Ruth Gruber ‘Virtually Jewish’ London: Routledge, 2002
Sarah Johnstone, Tom Masters, Martin Hughes Lonely Planet London, London, 2004.
Freud Museum // http://www.freud.org.uk
Freud Museum // http://www.freud.org.uk
Dr Johnson's House // http://www.drjh.dircon.co.uk/
2

Список литературы [ всего 15]

List of used literature
1. General Information // The Whole London, Escudo de Ora, London, 2000.
2. The National Gallery Companion Guide. New Revised Edition, London, 1994
3. The Kings and Queens of England, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1995
4. Carla Yanni ‘Nature's Museums: Victorian Science and the Architecture of Display’, London, 2004
5. Ruth Gruber ‘Virtually Jewish’ London: Routledge, 2002
6. Sarah Johnstone, Tom Masters, Martin Hughes Lonely Planet London, London, 2004
Ресурсы информационной сети Internet
7. Historic London // http://www.londontourist.org/historic.html
8. Westminster Abbey // http://www.westminster-abbey.org/
9. National Gallery of London // http://www.nationgallery.org.uk/
10. The Museum of London // http://www.aboutbritain.com/MuseumofLondon.htm
11. Apsley House // http://www.aboutbritain.com/ApsleyHouse.htm
12. London Transport Museum // http://www.ltmuseum.co.uk/collections/collections/vehicles.shtml
13. Churchill Museum and Cabinet War Rooms http://www.aboutbritain.com/ChurchillMuseumAndCabinetWarRooms.htm
14. The British Museum // http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk
15. Freud Museum // http://www.freud.org.uk
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