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Teenage slang in the USA

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Содержание

Introduction
Theoretical part
General characteristics of slang
Definition of slang
Origins of slang
Creators and users of slang
Slang dictionaries
Teenage slang in the USA
The city, mass communications, and popular speech in the
USA
Why teenagers use slang?
Examples of teenage slang
Teenage Internet slang
SMS slang used by teenagers
Practical part
American teenage slang used in films
Slang in different kinds of songs
Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix

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Feet fail me not cuz maybe the only opportunity that I got I'ma I'm going to Tear this mothafuckin roof off Perform really well: the roof of the concert hall will be torn off by the skill and/or noise (also "blow the roof off") cipher This has several meanings - it can be a rap about his life, a kind of group rap event where performers show off, or in Standard English, a secret code
9 to 5 regular job
my seed my child/children prima donna a performer (usually female) who is egotistical and badly behaved (similar to diva) Baby mama drama's screamin My child's mother is making a theatrical scene jam problem mothafuckin used for emphasis. (from mother fucker - very offensive) Eminem Without Me
Original Translation of Slang Obie Trice Obie Trice, Real Name No Gimmicks... Eminem Two trailer park girls go round the outside, round the outside, round the outside. Two trailer park girls go round the outside, round the outside, round the outside.
Guess who's back, back again Shady's back, tell a friend Guess who's back, guess who's back, guess who's back, guess who's back, guess who's back, guess who's back, guess who's back...
I've created a monster, cuz nobody wants to See Marshall no more they want Shady I'm chopped liver Well if you want Shady, then this is what I'll give ya A little bit of weed mixed with some hard liquor Some vodka that will jumpstart my heart quicker Than a shock when I get shocked at the hospital By the Dr. when I'm not cooperating When I'm rocking the table while he's operating "Hey" You waited this long to stop debating Cuz I'm back, I'm on the rag and ovulating I know you got a job Ms. Cheney But your husbands heart problem is complicated So the FCC won't let me be Or let me be me so let me see They tried to shut me down on MTV But it feels so empty without me So come on dip, bum on your lips, fuck that! cum on your lips and some on your tits And get ready cuz this shit's about to get heavy I just settled all my lawsuits, fuck you Debbie!   . T r
.
cuz because chopped liver an unimportant person weed marijuana on the rag menstruating and ovulating producing an egg (ovulating is formal language - not slang) So come on dip, bum on your lips get down and kiss my ass (an expression of contempt) fuck that Forget about that cum on your lips and some on your tits semen on your lips and breasts (presumably from giving him oral sex) this shit's about to get heavy things are about to become serious CHORUS Now this looks like a job for me So everybody just follow me Cuz we need a little controversy, Cuz it feels so empty without me I said this looks like a job for me So everybody just follow me Cuz we need a little controversy, Cuz it feels so empty without me     Little hellions, kids feeling rebellious Embarrassed, their parents still listen to Elvis They start feeling like prison is helpless, Till someone comes along on a mission and yells "bitch!" A visionary, vision is scary, could start a revolution, Polluting the air waves a rebel So let me just revel and bask, In the fact that I got everyone kissing my ass And it's a disaster such a catastrophe For you to see so damn much of my ass you ask for me? Well I'm back fix your bent antenna Tune it in and then I'm gonna enter Into the front of your skin like a splinter The center of attention back for the winter I'm interesting, the best thing since wrestling Infesting in your kids ears and nesting Testing "Attention Please" Feel the tension soon as someone mentions me Here's my 10 cents my 2 cents is free A nuisance, who sent, you sent for me?   hellions troublemakers bitch hateful woman Polluting the air waves saying bad words on the radio I got everyone kissing my ass Everyone flatters me and treats me like I'm very important my ass me my 2 cents my opinion CHORUS     A tisk-it a task-it, I go tit for tat with anybody who's talking this shit that shit Chris Kirkpatrick, you can get your ass kicked Worse than them little Limp Bizkit bastards, And Moby, you can get stomped by Obie, You 36 year old bald headed fag blow me You don't know me, you're too old Let go, it's over, nobody listens to techno Now lets go, just give me the signal I will be there with a whole list full of new insults I've been dope, suspenseful with a pencil Ever since Prince turned himself into a symbol But sometimes the shit just seems, Everybody only wants to discuss me So this means I'm disgusting, But its just me I'm just obscene Though I'm not the first king of controversy I am the worst thing since Elvis Presley, To do Black music so selfishly And use it to get myself wealthy There's a concept that works 20 million other white rappers emerge But no matter how many fish in the sea It'll be so empty without me
CHORUS
Hum dei la la la, la la la la la, la la la la la, la la la la Hum dei la la la, la la la la la, la la la la la, la la la la
Kids!   tit for tat answering each insult with an equal reply talking this shit that shit saying those bad things get your ass kicked be beaten fag gay man (derogatory) blow me literally "Give me oral sex." It is also used non-sexually as an expression of contempt. dope great the shit things fish in the sea "There are plenty of other fish in the sea." Typical English expression, most often used when someone is unlucky in love. Eminem My Band 
Original Translation of Slang (Eminem) I don't know, dude. I think everybody is all jealous and shit 'cause I'm like the lead singer of the band, dude. And I think everybody's got a frickin' problem with me dude, and they need to take it up with me after the show. Because. . . CHORUS These chicks don't even know the name of my band, But they're all over me like they want to hold hands, 'Cause once I blow they'll know that I'll be the man, all because I'm the lead singer of my band.   (Eminem) I don't know, man. I think everybody is completely jealous because I'm the lead singer of the band, man. And I think everybody's got a big problem with me, man, and they need to talk to me about it after the show. Because. . . CHORUS These girls don't even know the name of my band, But they are coming close to me like they want to hold hands, Because once I rap they'll know that I am the important one, all because I'm the lead singer of my band. So I get offstage, right? I drop the mic, Walk up to these hot chicks, then I'm all like, "'Sup, ladies? My name's Slim Shady, I'm the lead singer in D12, baby." They're all like "Oh my God it's him, Becky, oh my fricking God it's Eminem." "I swear to fricking God dude, you fricking rock, Please won't you please let me suck your cock?" "Not right now, the rest of the fellas get jealous, 'Specially when I drop the beat and do my acapellas" All the chicks start yelling, all the hot babes throw their bras and their shirts and their panties onstage, So like every single night they pick a fight with me, But when we fight it's kind a like sibling rivalry, 'cause they're back on stage the next night with me, Dude, I just think you're trying to steal the light from me. Yesterday Kuniva tried to pull a knife on me, 'cause I told him Jessica Alba's my wife-to-be. This rock star shit's the life for me, and all the other guys just despise me because. . . CHORUS My band! (repeat 8 times)   So I get offstage, right? I drop the microphone, Walk up to these sexy girls, then I say, "What's happening, ladies? My name's Slim Shady, I'm the lead singer in D12 baby." They say, "Oh my God it's him, Becky, I can't believe it, it's Eminem." "Honestly, man, you are really great, Please won't you please let me give you oral sex?" "Not right now, the rest of the men get jealous, Especially when I sing without musical accompaniment" All the girls start yelling, all the sexy women throw their bras and their shirts and their panties onstage, So every single night they start a fight with me, But when we fight it's similar to the fights between brothers and sisters, because they're back on stage the next night with me, Man, I just think you're trying to get the attention that should be mine. Yesterday Kuniva tried to stab me with a knife, because I told him Jessica Alba is going to be my wife. Being a rock star is a great life for me, and all the other guys just hate me because. . . CHORUS My band! (repeat 8 times) (Swifty) You just want to see a nigga backwards don't you? Ain't that? How come we don't rap off proceeds? Smash these vocals and do a performance, but we in a van, and he in a tour bus. You don't want my autograph, you'se a liar, and naw, I'm Swift, "Oh, I thought you were Kuniva." And what the hell is wrong with our dressing room? 'cause our shit is looking smaller than a decimal. See, I know how to rap, it's simple but all I did was read a Russell Simmons book. So I'm more intact, trying to get on the map, doing jumping jacks while getting whipped on my back   (Swifty) You just want to see a black man at a disadvantage/leaving don't you? Isn't that true? Why don't we get the profits from rapping? We do great vocals and do a performance, but we are traveling in a van, and he's on a tour bus. You don't want my autograph, you are a liar, and no, I'm Swift, "Oh, I thought you were Kuniva." And what the hell (emphasis) is wrong with our dressing room? Because it is really tiny. Understand, I know how to rap, it's simple but all I did was read a Russell Simmons book. So I'm more intact, trying to get people to know my name, doing jumping jacks while getting whipped on my back (Kuniva, Kon Artis, Eminem) K: Look at Em, little punk ass, thinking he the shit KA: Yeah I know man, by himself takin' all the flicks. K: Hey, I thought we had an interview with DJ Clue E: No I had an interview, not you two. K: You gon' be late for soundcheck KA: Man, I ain't going to soundcheck K: Man, our mics is screwed up, KA: And his always sound best You know what, man? I'm a say something K: Ay'yo Em! E: You got something to say? KA: Man, nothing. K: I thought you was about tell him off, man, wassup? KA: Man, I'm a tell him when I feel like it man. Shut up! You ain't even back me up, and we supposed to be crew K: Man I was about to talk right after you, I swear KA: Man, whatever! K: I swear, man CHORUS   (Kuniva, Kon Artis, Eminem) K: Look at Eminmen, that worthless man who thinks he is wonderful KA: I know, man, he does movies without us. K: Hey, I thought we had an interview with DJ Clue E: No I had an interview, not you two. K: You're going to be late for the soundcheck KA: Man, I'm not going to soundcheck K: Man, there is something wrong with our microphones KA: And his always sound best You know what, man? I'm going to say something K: Pay attention, Eminem! E: Do you have something to say? KA: Man, nothing. K: I thought you were about to harshly criticize him, man, why didn't you? KA: Man, I will tell him when I feel like it, man. Be quiet! You didn't even support me, and we are supposed to be friends K: Man, I was going to say something right after you, honestly KA: Man, well I don't care! K: Honestly! CHORUS (Proof) They say the lead singer's rock, but the group is not With some sold out arenas to amusement parks I'm gon' let the world know that Proof is hot I should cut his mic off when the music starts. (Eminem) Hey, yo, it's-- Ready to snap on the dumbass fan, Every time I hear "Hey dude! I love your band!" We ain't a band bitch, we don't play instruments. So why he get 90 and we only get 10 percent? And these guys acting funny every area code. (Eminem) Proof, carry my bag! Bitch carry your own. Can't make it to the stage, security in my way. "Who the fuck are you, where's Obie and Dre?"   (Proof) They say the lead singer's great, but the group is not. With all the tickets to my shows at arenas and amusement parks sold out I'm going to let the world know that Proof is great I should turn his microphone off when the music starts. (Eminem) Hey, yo, it's-- (his microphone is off) I'm ready to speak angrily to the stupid fan, Every time I hear "Hey man! I love your band!" We are not a band, hateful woman, we don't play instruments. So why does he get 90 percent of the profits and we only get 10 percent? And these people are acting strange all over the country. (Eminem) Proof, carry my bag! Eminem, you are like a woman! Carry your own bag. I can't get to the stage, security guards are in my way. They say, "Who the fuck (emphasis) are you, where are Obie and Dre?" (Bizzare) God damn it, I'm sick of this group, Time for me to go solo and make some loot. I told you I made the beats, and wrote all the raps, Till Kon Artis slipped me some crack. "Lose Yourself" video? I was in the back. "Superman" video? I was in the back. For the media, I got some suggestions, Fuck Marshall, ask us some questions. Like "Who's D12?", "How we get started?" (Female reporter) "But what about Eminem?" Bitch, are you retarded? Anyway, I'm the poverished guy in the group. Big ass stomach, bitches think I'm cute. 50 told me to do sit-ups to get buff, Did two and a half, then couldn't get up. Fuck D12, I'm out of this band, I'm gonna start a group with the Real Roxanne. (Eminem) Girl, why can't you see you're the only one for me and it just tears my ass apart to know that you don't know my band! CHORUS My band! (repeat 8 times)   (Bizzare) I'm angry, I'm tired of this group, Time for me to go solo and make some money. I told you I made the music, and wrote all the raps, Till Kon Artis secretly gave me some crack cocaine. "Lose Yourself" video? I was in the back. "Superman" video? I was in the back. For the media, I have got some suggestions, Forget about Eminem, ask us some questions. Like "Who's D12?", "How did we get started?" (Female reporter) "But what about Eminem?" Hateful woman, are you stupid? Anyway, I'm the poor man in the group. I have a very big stomach, girls think I'm cute. 50 Cent told me to do sit-ups to get muscular, I did two and a half, then couldn't get up. Forget about D12, I'm leaving this band, I'm going to start a group with the Real Roxanne. (Eminem) Girl why can't you see you're the only one for me and it really upsets me to know that you don't know my band! CHORUS My band! (repeat 8 times) (Eminem) I'm the leader of my band. I get all the girls to take off their underpants. I'm the lead singer of my band. My salsa makes all the pretty girls want to dance. My salsa. Look out for my next single, it's called "My salsa." My salsa, salsa, salsa, salsa. My salsa makes all the pretty girls want to dance and take off their underpants. My salsa makes all the pretty girls want to dance and take off their underpants. My salsa. Where'd everybody go?   (Eminem) I'm the leader of my band. I get all the girls to take off their underpants. I'm the lead singer of my band. My salsa makes all the pretty girls want to dance. My salsa. Look out for my next single, it's called "My salsa." My salsa, salsa, salsa, salsa. My salsa makes all the pretty girls want to dance and take off their underpants. My salsa makes all the pretty girls want to dance and take off their underpants. My salsa. Where did everybody go? 50 Cent Candy Shop
Original Translation of Slang (50 Cent) Yeah... Uh huh So seductive CHORUS (50 Cent) I'll take you to the candy shop I'll let you lick the lollipop Go 'head girl don't you stop Keep going 'til you hit the spot (Olivia) I'll take you to the candy shop Boy one taste of what I got I'll have you spending all you got Keep going 'til you hit the spot Uh huh yes lick the lollipop not-so-subtle reference to oral sex Go 'head Go ahead hit the spot reach satisfaction (50 Cent) You can have it your way, how do you want it You gon' back that thing up, or should I push up on it Temperature rising, okay, lets go to the next level Dance floor jam packed, hot as a teakettle I break it down for you now, baby its simple If you be a nympho, I'll be a nympho In the hotel, or in the back of the rental On the beach or in the park, just whatever you into Got the magic stick, I'm the love doctor Have you friends teaching you 'bout how sprung I got ya Wanna show me how you work it baby, no problem get on top Then get your bounce around, like a little rider I'm a seasoned vet when it come to this shit After you work up a sweat you can play with this stick I'm trying to explain baby the best way I can I melt in your mouth girl, not in your hand (ha ha)
CHORUS (50 Cent) You can have it your way I will do whatever you like (reference to Burger King hamburger commercial) You gon' back that thing up, or should I push up on it Are you going to push your buttocks back into my groin or should I press my body against you? jam packed really crowded hot as a teakettle very exciting I break it down for you I will explain it to you nympho abbreviation for Standard English nymphomaniac, a person (usually a woman) who has an abnormally high desire for sex rental rental car whatever you into whatever you like the magic stick penis (reference to spoken line in P.I.M.P. video) the love doctor nickname usually associated with the late Barry White, whose soulful voice is considered by many Americans to be the ultimate music for seduction Have you friends teaching you 'bout how sprung I got ya Your friends will comment on how well I please you I'm a seasoned vet when it come to this shit I have a lot of experience with sex I melt in your mouth girl, not in your hand metaphor for oral sex (reference to advertising slogan for M&M chocolate candy) (50 Cent & Olivia) Girl what we do (what we do) And where we do (and where we do) The things we do (things we do) Are just between me and you (oh yeah) (50 Cent) Give it to me baby, nice and slow Climb on top, ride like you in a rodeo You ain't never heard a sound like this before 'Cause I ain't never put it down like this Soon as I come through the door, she get to pulling on my zipper It's like it's a race who can get undressed quicker Isn't it ironic how erotic it is to watch them thongs Had me thinking about that ass after I'm gone I touch the right spot at the right time Lights on or lights off, she like it from behind So seductive you should see the way she wine Her hips so slow mo' on the floor when we grind Long as she ain't stopping, homie I aint stopping Triple wet with sweat, man its on and popping All my champagne campaign, bottle after bottle, it's on And we gon' sip the heavy bubble, now every bottle is gone CHORUS You ain't never You have never 'Cause because put it down done it thong very small underwear with a thin piece like a string in the back between the buttocks. Since the underwear is generally percieved as being erotic, it is unclear why 50 Cent finds this ironic. ass buttocks she like it from behind she prefers sex with the man behind her wine a dance in which the woman grinds her buttocks into the man's groin slow mo' slow motion grind grind our hips (similar to wine) homie friend Triple wet with sweat very sweaty heavy bubble a lot of champagne
By the end of my ptactical part I can conclude, that the too offensive and obscene slang often used in teenage films and songs will never enter the Standard English. And that’s right.
Conclusion
In conclusion I want to say, that speaking about slang in general, one can conclude, that:
slang is widely used in everyday speech;
slang words differ in their structure;
slang words are created within subcultures;
slang words don't spoil literature language.
To sum up, it’s needless to notice that teenagers prefer to use informal words and expressions to describe an object in order to do their speech more colorful or peculiar. Furthermore, American young people use slang in order to be fashionable. It’s seems very cool when they pronounce such strange sounding words. It’s needless to notice, that young people all around the world use slang to show they’re connected to American pop culture.
One can conclude that American slang has a global currency in youth-cultural contexts. Nowadays among teenagers it exists many types of slang. Despite the fact that many people consider slang vulgar, because slang contains many obscene and offensive words and phrases, many people especially teenagers as you can see prefer to use it in their speech. Also, it is the big quantity of special slang dictionaries.
Bibliography
Allen I.L.The City in Slang, New York, 1994
Andersson L.G.Bad language, London, 1992
Androutsopoulos Jannis. Global slang spread of American slang//Do you speak American, 2002// http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/globalslang/#androutsopoulos
A Historical Dictionary of American Slang (2006), ed. Robert Beard, alphaDictionary.com.// http://www.alphadictionary.com/slang/.
Beard, Robert (2006) What is Slang? alphaDictionary.com.// http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/what_is_slang.html.
Bullard Winona, Shirley Johnson, Jerkeshea Morris, Kelly Fox, Cassie Howell Students, University of North Carolina at Pembroke What is Slang? //http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/1914-/language/slang.htm
Collins Essential English Dictionary 2nd Edition 2006 HarperCollins Publishers 2004
Croft, William (2000) Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman: 75-6.
Dalzell T, “Flappers 2 rappers: American youth slang”, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1996
Dictionary of contemporary slang - Tony Thorne.Published by Bloomsbury. London. 1997.
Dumas, Bethany K. and Lighter, Jonathan (1978) ‘’Is Slang a Word for Linguists?’’ American Speech 53 (5): 14-15.
Green, Jonathon. 2000. Cassell's Rhyming Slang. Cassell.
Lighter, Jonathan E.; J. Ball; and J. O'Connor, eds. Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang. Random House, 1994 .
Lumerg Robert. American Slang. HarperPerennial, 1987. Abridged edition of the New Dictionary of American Slang (Harper, 1986).
Marshall J, “Dangerous English”, Delta publishing, 2003
Mencken H.L. The American Language. Second edition, revised and enlarged? New York publishing, 1921
Partridge, Eric. Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English.  Macmillan, 1985. A classic, with 7,500 entries; first published in 1937.
Partrige E, “Slang to-day and yesterday”, London, 1971.
Peter van der Merwe, Origins of the Popular Style (1989, reissued 1992).
The Oxford dictionary of modern slang - John Ayto / John Simpson.Published by Oxford University Press. 1992.
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Spears R.A. Dictionary of American Slang. Lincolnwood, Ill.: National Textbook Co., 1991. 528 p.
Wentworth, Harold and Flexner, Stuart Berg. Dictionary of American Slang. Crowell, 2d ed., 1975.
What is slang//http://www.thefreedictionary.com/slang
Slang//http://www.thefreedictionary.com/slang
What does all this chat room slang mean? // http://uscash.net/tips/chat.html
money slang//http://www.businessballs.com/moneyslanghistory.htm
Film «Sliding doors»// http://www.londonslang.com/
Frequency of usage of verb-adverb combinations (VAC) in American slang//http://nakhodka.wl.dvgu.ru/forum/section7/7-04.htm
Internet Slang//http://uscash.net/tips/chat.html
Teenage slang// http://www.irishslang.net/
Teenage slang// http://www.bbc.co.uk/ Created: 28th July 1999
List of slang used in hip hop music// http://www.omnipelagos.com/entry?n=list_of_slang_used_in_hip_hop_music
Slang//http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slang
Slang in songs and in cinemas//http://www.slangcity.com
Appendix
Some Thoughts on Slang by Kelly Fox11
Slang is the poetry of everyday life.       -S. I. Hayakawa, Language in Action, 1941 
Slang, n. The grunt of the human hog (Pignoramus intolerabilis) with an audible memory.       -Ambrose Bierce, The Devil's Dictionary, 1911 
I shall invent a new game; I shall write bits of slang and poetry on slips and give them to you separate.       -George Eliot, Middlemarch, 1871 
Slang is "language which takes off its coat, spits on its hands -- and goes to work."       -Carl Sandburg (as quoted in Crystal 182) 
Slang is humanity's first play toy.       -John Algeo, University of Georgia professor 
Slang, at its worst, it is stupidly coarse and provocative.  At its best, it makes standard English seem pallid.       -J. E. Lighter, chief editor of Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang
1 Andersson L.G. Bad language, London 1992
2 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
3 Collins Essential English Dictionary 2nd Edition 2006 HarperCollins Publishers 2004
4 Dumas, Bethany K. and Lighter, Jonathan (1978) ‘’Is Slang a Word for Linguists?’’ American Speech 53 (5): 14-15.
5 The Oxford dictionary of modern slang - John Ayto / John Simpson.Published by Oxford University Press. 1992.
6 Partrige E. Slang to-day and yesterday. London, 1971
7 Teenage slang// http://www.bbc.co.uk/ Created: 28th July 1999
8 Internet Slang//http://uscash.net/tips/chat.html
11 Teenage slang// http://www.irishslang.net/
57

Список литературы

1.Allen I.L.The City in Slang, New York, 1994
2.Andersson L.G.Bad language, London, 1992
3. Androutsopoulos Jannis. Global slang spread of American slang//Do you speak American, 2002// http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/globalslang/#androutsopoulos
4.A Historical Dictionary of American Slang (2006), ed. Robert Beard, alphaDictionary.com.// http://www.alphadictionary.com/slang/.
5.Beard, Robert (2006) What is Slang? alphaDictionary.com.// http://www.alphadictionary.com/articles/what_is_slang.html.
6.Bullard Winona, Shirley Johnson, Jerkeshea Morris, Kelly Fox, Cassie Howell Students, University of North Carolina at Pembroke What is Slang? //http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/1914-/language/slang.htm
7.Collins Essential English Dictionary 2nd Edition 2006 HarperCollins Publishers 2004
8.Croft, William (2000) Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman: 75-6.
9.Dalzell T, “Flappers 2 rappers: American youth slang”, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, 1996
10.Dictionary of contemporary slang - Tony Thorne.Published by Bloomsbury. London. 1997.
11.Dumas, Bethany K. and Lighter, Jonathan (1978) ‘’Is Slang a Word for Linguists?’’ American Speech 53 (5): 14-15.
12.Green, Jonathon. 2000. Cassell's Rhyming Slang. Cassell.
13.Lighter, Jonathan E.; J. Ball; and J. O'Connor, eds. Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang. Random House, 1994 .
14.Lumerg Robert. American Slang. HarperPerennial, 1987. Abridged edition of the New Dictionary of American Slang (Harper, 1986).
15.Marshall J, “Dangerous English”, Delta publishing, 2003
16.Mencken H.L. The American Language. Second edition, revised and enlarged? New York publishing, 1921
17.Partridge, Eric. Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Macmillan, 1985. A classic, with 7,500 entries; first published in 1937.
18.Partrige E, “Slang to-day and yesterday”, London, 1971.
19.Peter van der Merwe, Origins of the Popular Style (1989, reissued 1992).
20.The Oxford dictionary of modern slang - John Ayto / John Simpson.Published by Oxford University Press. 1992.
21.Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc
22.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
23.Spears R.A. Dictionary of American Slang. Lincolnwood, Ill.: National Textbook Co., 1991. 528 p.
24.Wentworth, Harold and Flexner, Stuart Berg. Dictionary of American Slang. Crowell, 2d ed., 1975.
25.What is slang//http://www.thefreedictionary.com/slang
26.Slang//http://www.thefreedictionary.com/slang
27.What does all this chat room slang mean? // http://uscash.net/tips/chat.html
28.money slang//http://www.businessballs.com/moneyslanghistory.htm
29.Film «Sliding doors»// http://www.londonslang.com/
30.Frequency of usage of verb-adverb combinations (VAC) in American slang//http://nakhodka.wl.dvgu.ru/forum/section7/7-04.htm
31.Internet Slang//http://uscash.net/tips/chat.html
32.Teenage slang// http://www.irishslang.net/
33.Teenage slang// http://www.bbc.co.uk/ Created: 28th July 1999
34.List of slang used in hip hop music// http://www.omnipelagos.com/entry?n=list_of_slang_used_in_hip_hop_music
35.Slang//http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slang
36. Slang in songs and in cinemas//http://www.slangcity.com
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