Вход

Verification of the hypothesis: Industrial districts and industrial clusters are similar structures with insignificant differences

Рекомендуемая категория для самостоятельной подготовки:
Реферат*
Код 158727
Дата создания 2012
Страниц 25
Источников 12
Мы сможем обработать ваш заказ 13 апреля в 12:00 [мск]
Файлы будут доступны для скачивания только после обработки заказа.
1 100руб.
КУПИТЬ

Содержание

Contents
Introduction
Chapter 1. The content of clusters and its role in the national economy
1.1. The notion of clusters and its types
1.2. The world experience of innovative cluster development
Chapter 2. Cluster as an instrument of economy competitiveness growth
2.1. Competitive innovative trend
2.2. Development of industrial cluster production
Conclusions
List of references
Annex

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

The firms-competitors concerning to the branches with the international success and sometimes the whole clusters are localized in one area or region. The concentration of competitors, their suppliers and buyers promotes specialization and production efficiency increase. Nevertheless even more considerable is the influence of geographical concentration on improvement of industrial procedures and introduction of innovations in cluster. Small companies in cluster structure are represented by special subjects of the market who function not as separate firms and as elements of an incorporated group of companies, and for this reason estimate their efficiency on success of cluster activity and on the separate small organizations entering into it. The efficiency of activity of small-scale business in cluster association is estimated by means of volume of its share in release of general production and by means of indicators of cluster (a susceptibility to innovations, profitableness, competitiveness, etc.).
The effective cluster demostrates economic growth, participates in expansion of workplaces, increase of tax base, growth of export and appeal to foreign investments. For this reason the authorities of different levels quite often happen initiators of cluster formation and development, because they stimulate social and economic growth in the locations, adjoining territories and regions.
Nevertheless, cluster mechanism represents only spatially-organizational factor for growth of competitiveness of manufacture, it can be only addition to factors of manufacture, which form an initial basis necessary for competitive advantages. Territorially organized manufactures is only base, originally they should be supplied by progressive technologies and the advanced technics as well as highly professional labor. And they should be not simply equipped by technics and should get competitive advantages in labor, technologies and the technician.
As M. Porter writes “not only factors of manufacture themselves but where and how much fruitfully they are used predetermine the success in the international competition”.
In the form of the unique integration mechanism, cluster gives the chance to lower expenses of manufacture and to eliminate duplication. The competition without monopoly, a private property, stability of monetary circulation, methods of free pricing, economic responsibility and independence of businessmen is obligatory for cluster that stimulates the national economy growth.
Preconditions to creation of industrial cluster is the situation when companies are more competitive together, instead of separately.
Usually clusters appear at the initiative of companies, because they can receive such benefits from cooperation as reception of new knowledge, the best efficiency, cooperation, association of capacities and efforts, etc. The establishment of cluster communications is the priority purpose of set of innovative strategy, thanks to it the government quite often resorts to an establishment of business relations through clusterization ideas. The enterprises are interested in support of such projects because they allow to adjust cooperation between science and industries. From such mutually advantageous cooperation the state national economy wins.
However, despite conclusive advantages of cluster approach for economy of concrete territory and for the country as a whole, there are some obstacles. They are shown in table 2.
Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of clusters creation and functioning
Positive aspects of clusters existence Difficulties of cluster creation for participants for region and economy Growth of productivity Strengthening the competitive status with competitiveness increasing Bad infrastructure Reduction of transnational expenses Activization entrepreneurial business Deficit of capital and qualified labour force Improvement perceptual ability of innovation Improvement of investment attrativeness Hierarchy of clusters - difficulties for suppliers of lower level Better access to sale markets, specialized suppliers, qualified labour force, technological solutions Promotion of more rational use of resources Effect of blocking, i.e. particular companies could be more competitive in comparison with clusters Big flexibility, economy in manufacture scales. Synergy effect Improvement of regional innovative environment Threat of hyperspecialization of cluster and excessive brandization Bigger chances for new enterprises establishment Growth of export potential, providing the sustainable development of social processes Disinterest of athorities, misunderstanding of advatages of cluster approach
In cluster model are most fully considered changing forms of a competition and the basic sources of the competitive advantages. The cluster mechanism gives the chance to realize the most essential interrelations in marketing, information, skills, technologies and consumer preferences, characteristic for the whole complex of the companies and branches.
The given interrelations actively influence the rates and direction of innovations as well as competitiveness of the made goods.
It is no coincidence the cluster approach began to be applied widely at creation and realization of a national policy in different countries.
The cluster structure allows to increase the efficiency of interaction of trading associations, states, private sector, educational and research institutes in innovative process. The cluster approach can be the basis for dialogue between representatives of enterprise sphere and the country on purpose to reveal problems of development of a science and manufacture, ways of more productive realization of investment possibilities and the necessary measures of state policy.
In summary, the cluster approach not only plays a role of means of achievement of the purposes of economic policy (competitiveness growth, structural modifications, augmentation of innovative orientation, etc.), but also represents the powerful tool of stimulation of regional development. Clusters positively influence the national economy growth through increase in budgets contributions in different levels, employment, salary, growth of stability and competitiveness of the regional industry.
Conclusions
The purpose and tasks that have been put in the present paper, are reached. Summing up, it is possible to make the following conclusions.
Cluster is a group of interconnected companies which are concentrated according to geographical factor. Specialized suppliers, service providers, the companies in respective branches and institutions connected with their activity here concern, in particular, universities, agencies on standardization and trading associations in separate areas that compete, but at the same time are engaged in teamwork.
During periodic small conflicts and competitive struggle in industrial cluster the system in general becomes optimum and increases the forces in global competitive struggle.
Clusters mostly are formed there where it is realized or expected a jerk in the sphere of production technology and technics and the further launching the new market segments.
In the US about 50% of companies function on the base of clusters, their share in gross national product exceeds 60%.
Earlier cluster networks specialized basically on manufacture of consumer products and were formed to raise the competitiveness of concrete territories and regions. In new century industrial innovative clusters of new generation began to develop which were engaged in manufacture of biomedical preparations, ecology, logistics, design computer science, etc.
The stable development of innovative cluster mostly depends on access to the best sources of scientific knowledge and modern technologies as well as on possibility to concentrate the essential volumes of capital.
Clusters promote the development of the competitive advantages of the national economy by innovations in different branches as well as by industrial production growth.
Clusters positively influence the growth of the national economy through increase in budgets contributions in different levels, employment, salary.
List of references
European Commission. Innovation Clusters in Europe — A Statistical Analysis and Overview of Current Policy Support (2006). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
Synopsis of Policy Options for Creating a Supportive Environment for Innovative Development. ECE/CECI/2008/3, Geneva, 9 September 2008.
Адамова К.З. Кластеры: понятие, условия возникновения и функционирования, Вестник Саратовского государственного технического университета, №34 - 2008. – 273 с.
Грановеттер М. Успех инновационного кластера основан на открытости, гибкости и свободе // The New Times , 6 апреля 2010
Клейнер Г.Б., Качалов Р.М., Нагрудная Н.Б. Синтез стратегии кластера на основе системно-интеграционной теории // Наука — Образование — Инновации. 2008. №7. 394 с.
Колошин А., Разгуляев К., Тимофеев Ю., Русинов В. Анализ зарубежного опыта повышения отраслевой, региональной конкурентоспособности на основе развития кластеров. Электронный ресурс: http://politanaliz.ru/articles_695.html
Ленчук Е.Б., Власкин Г.А. Кластерный подход в стратегии инновационного развития зарубежных стран. Экономический портал. Электронный ресурс: http://institutiones.com/strategies/1928-klasternyj-podxod-v-strategii -innovacionnogo -razvitiya -zarubezhnyx-stran.html
Пилипенко И.В. Конкурентоспособность и формы организации производства в постиндустриальных условиях / Сборник докладов: Постиндустриальная трансформация социального пространства России. М: Эслан, 2006 - 328 с.
Пилипенко И.В. Конкурентоспособность стран и регионов в мировом хозяйстве: теория, опыт малых стран Западной и Северной Европы, М, 2005 - 501 с.
Портер М. Конкуренция. М.: Изд. дом «Вильямс», 2003. 294 с.
Сулоева Н.А., Кайгородцев А.А. Кластерный подход в экономике развивающихся стран. Журнал: Вестник КАСУ №4 – 2008. Электронный ресурс: http://www.vestnik-kafu.info/journal/16/596/
Эдилерская А.А. Кластерно-сетевые принципы организации современного предпринимательства //Актуальные проблемы развития общества, экономики и права / Сб. науч. трудов аспирантов, 2008. – 324 с.
Annex
Definitions of cluster
Author Definition M. Porter Cluster is a group of geographically neighboring interconnected companies and organizations, operating in specific sphere, characterizing by common activities and supporting each other. L. Yang Cluster is a group of small private enterprises situated nearby the biggest universities. V. Price Cluster is a way of use of advantage of branch location organizations and effective regional management intending close cooperation between state and business. D. Jacobs Cluster is a geographic or spacial union to provide economic activity, it has horizontal and vertical interconnections, use of common technology, sustainable development. S. Rosenfeld Cluster is a geographically finite union of similar, connected or additional companies with active channels for business dealing, infrastructure, labour market and services that is able to get both profit from common possibilities and common risks. K. Ketels Cluster is a union that structure consists of enterprises of interconnecting industrial branches, authorities, educational institutions, financial and public organizations. M. Afanasiev, L. Myasnikova Cluster is an network of independent industries, service companies, connecting market institutions and consumers. M. Voinarenko Cluster is an union characterizing by strong interconnections between its participants, internal cooperation and competitiveness, orientation on market demand. Cluster development strategy does not contradict the strategy of regional development. A. Voronova, A. Buryak Cluster is a disciplined, relatively stable union of specific enterprises, producing competitive production with a glance to territorial localization of branch. A. Migranyan Cluster is a concentration of mostly effective types of economic activity that are made by successfully competitive companies providing the competitive positions in branch, national and world markets. E. Monastyrny The innovative cluster is a formation on the base of scientific knowledge centers, training of qualified specialists centers; it produces goods and services with long-term competitive advantages; works in perspective markets or forms a new distribution markets. A. Prazdnichnykh Cluster is an organism or “regional ecosystem”, providing the competitiveness of cluster participants.
Адамова К.З. Кластеры: понятие, условия возникновения и функционирования, Вестник Саратовского государственного технического университета, №34 - 2008. С. 129.
Пилипенко И.В. Конкурентоспособность стран и регионов в мировом хозяйстве: теория, опыт малых стран Западной и Северной Европы, М, 2005. С.495.
Адамова К.З. Кластеры: понятие, условия возникновения и функционирования, Вестник Саратовского государственного технического университета, №34 - 2008. С.131.
Пилипенко И.В. Конкурентоспособность и формы организации производства в постиндустриальных условиях / Сборник докладов: Постиндустриальная трансформация социального пространства России. М: Эслан, 2006. С. 138-142.
Портер М. Конкуренция. М.: Изд. дом «Вильямс», 2003. С. 64
Ленчук Е.Б., Власкин Г.А. Кластерный подход в стратегии инновационного развития зарубежных стран. Экономический портал. Электронный ресурс: http://institutiones.com /strategies/1928-klasternyj-podxod-v-strategii-innovacionnogo-razvitiya-zarubezhnyx-stran.html
European Commission. Innovation Clusters in Europe — A Statistical Analysis and Overview of Current Policy Support (2006). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
Synopsis of Policy Options for Creating a Supportive Environment for Innovative Development. ECE/CECI/2008/3, Geneva, 9 September 2008.
Эдилерская А.А. Кластерно-сетевые принципы организации современного предпринимательства //Актуальные проблемы развития общества, экономики и права / Сб. науч. трудов аспирантов, 2008. С. 60
Клейнер Г.Б., Качалов Р.М., Нагрудная Н.Б. Синтез стратегии кластера на основе системно-интеграционной теории //Наука — Образование — Инновации. 2008. №7. С. 10
Грановеттер М. Успех инновационного кластера основан на открытости, гибкости и свободе // The New Times, 2010, 6 апреля
Колошин А., Разгуляев К., Тимофеев Ю., Русинов В. Анализ зарубежного опыта повышения отраслевой, региональной конкурентоспособности на основе развития кластеров. Электронный ресурс: http://politanaliz.ru/articles_695.html
Сулоева Н.А., Кайгородцев А.А. Кластерный подход в экономике развивающихся стран. Журнал: Вестник КАСУ №4 – 2008. URL: http://www.vestnik-kafu.info/journal/16/596/
Портер М. Конкуренция. М.: Изд. дом «Вильямс», 2003. С. 52
2

Список литературы [ всего 12]

List of references
1.European Commission. Innovation Clusters in Europe — A Statistical Analysis and Overview of Current Policy Support (2006). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
2.Synopsis of Policy Options for Creating a Supportive Environment for Innovative Development. ECE/CECI/2008/3, Geneva, 9 September 2008.
3.Адамова К.З. Кластеры: понятие, условия возникновения и функционирования, Вестник Саратовского государственного технического университета, №34 - 2008. – 273 с.
4.Грановеттер М. Успех инновационного кластера основан на открытости, гибкости и свободе // The New Times , 6 апреля 2010
5.Клейнер Г.Б., Качалов Р.М., Нагрудная Н.Б. Синтез стратегии кластера на основе системно-интеграционной теории // Наука — Образование — Инновации. 2008. №7. 394 с.
6.Колошин А., Разгуляев К., Тимофеев Ю., Русинов В. Анализ зарубежного опыта повышения отраслевой, региональной конкурентоспособности на основе развития кластеров. Электронный ресурс: http://politanaliz.ru/articles_695.html
7.Ленчук Е.Б., Власкин Г.А. Кластерный подход в стратегии инновационного развития зарубежных стран. Экономический портал. Электронный ресурс: http://institutiones.com/strategies/1928-klasternyj-podxod-v-strategii -innovacionnogo -razvitiya -zarubezhnyx-stran.html
8.Пилипенко И.В. Конкурентоспособность и формы организации производства в постиндустриальных условиях / Сборник докладов: Постиндустриальная трансформация социального пространства России. М: Эслан, 2006 - 328 с.
9.Пилипенко И.В. Конкурентоспособность стран и регионов в мировом хозяйстве: теория, опыт малых стран Западной и Северной Европы, М, 2005 - 501 с.
10.Портер М. Конкуренция. М.: Изд. дом «Вильямс», 2003. 294 с.
11.Сулоева Н.А., Кайгородцев А.А. Кластерный подход в экономике развивающихся стран. Журнал: Вестник КАСУ №4 – 2008. Электронный ресурс: http://www.vestnik-kafu.info/journal/16/596/
12.Эдилерская А.А. Кластерно-сетевые принципы организации современного предпринимательства //Актуальные проблемы развития общества, экономики и права / Сб. науч. трудов аспирантов, 2008. – 324 с.
Пожалуйста, внимательно изучайте содержание и фрагменты работы. Деньги за приобретённые готовые работы по причине несоответствия данной работы вашим требованиям или её уникальности не возвращаются.
* Категория работы носит оценочный характер в соответствии с качественными и количественными параметрами предоставляемого материала. Данный материал ни целиком, ни любая из его частей не является готовым научным трудом, выпускной квалификационной работой, научным докладом или иной работой, предусмотренной государственной системой научной аттестации или необходимой для прохождения промежуточной или итоговой аттестации. Данный материал представляет собой субъективный результат обработки, структурирования и форматирования собранной его автором информации и предназначен, прежде всего, для использования в качестве источника для самостоятельной подготовки работы указанной тематики.
© Рефератбанк, 2002 - 2021