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Chapter 1 Development of folklore dance of Russian people
1.1. Concept and main features of folklore dance as a type of the art of dance
1.2. Formation and description of main elements of Russian folklore dance
chapter 2 Russian folklore dance as stage dance
2.1. Folklore material for creating stage dance
2.2. I. Moiseev’s choreographic folklore
Фрагмент работы для ознакомления
Choreographer often doesn’t give any temper to characters, doesn’t give any special features of given region to vocabulary and manner of performing and doesn’t take composition construction into consideration. In this case there is no difference between Vologda laces and that of any other region.
2.2. I. Moiseev’s choreographic folklore
During a long time many amateur and professional dance ensembles keep folk patterns and develop people’s dancing art which is able to speak any language. In the XX century this truth has found its live embodiment in activity of Igor Moiseev, choreographer of rare talent, who has influenced the development of modern dance culture a lot.
In March 1935 in Moscow a theatre of folk arts was opened, which gave many people a possibility to join to the art of choreography and became dancers. In fall 1936 first folk dance festival took place and in February 1937 there was established an ensemble of folk dance of the USSR under conduct of I. Moiseev.. after a year, in 1938 there was created a dance group attached to state Russian folk choir named after M. E. Pyatnitsky.
Igor Moiseev is a creator of the unique genre of folk-stage choreography in which high choreographic culture is organically combined with primeval purity of true folklore. In each his staging, in each his dance and movement there is a part pf folk’s soul. Every performance of the ensemble is a story about eternal spiritual values, saved by world treasury of folk art told by means of stage dramatic art.
As we have already said, acquaintance with people’s folklore of this or that region allows to know precisely what are the treasures of this region or area. Still not all the dances, existing among people are equally valuable and can be used for creating stage material. In numerous trips around the country Igor Moiseev studied true examples of folk art. All of this became a source for his unique artistic personality.
From 1937, the moment of establishing of ensemble of folk dance of the USSR Igor Moiseev puts all his talent in work with this collective. He renews old dances, stages new ones. He spends a lot of time studying choreographic art of peoples of our country and from all over the world. He stages not only separate dances, concert miniatures, but also folklore cycles, dance suites. Here specific folk choreography is put over the academic base of the dance flowing together with it.
In 1943 Igor Moiseev found the 1st professional school-studio of folk dance in the world that has now became a college.
After the war people of Europe enthusiastically repaired everyday life and art. Many leaders of folk ensembles seek help of Moiseev. Help turned out to be mutual. Commencing choreographers got important information and the ensemble got fresh material for experiments. The program Slav people dances, 1945, showed whole suites of dances of peoples of Eastern Europe including Hungarian, Plish, Romanian, Bulgarian. Surprisingly Moiseev himself had never seen Yugoslavian dances and for national vocabulary he seek in ornaments, songs and fairy tales.
In 1945 the first tour abroad (to Finland) of the ensemble took place. Since then they were recognized as informal Russian ambassador of good. Having broken the iron curtain ensemble was first in the country to make artistic trips to France, England (1955), US (1958), establishing cultural links between countries.
Besides a talented leader, for success of a collective it is important to work hard, to carry out long trainings, that usually start with worming up. During many centuries all folk festivals has begun with people’s walking around the village. It was like a snowball rolling down a mountain the walk started in one end of a settlement with a small group of people and finished on the other with a large crowd, gathering on its way everyone who wished to join. This method was noticed and used by Igor Moiseev. Even not having started to train yet one is internally concentrating. The ring dance is a conventionalized reflection of such a “collective meditation”. The training begins from walking in a circle to the accompaniment of rhythmic music. It begins from simple step, then walking on toes and on heels. After it a light running begins with bullies, turning around, rising of knees, backlash of legs, throwing legs out to the front, to the left and to the right, running back to front. After running the floor is filled as on a chessboard and quite a simple worming up set starts. The main principle is from the top to the bottom. Rotation of head, shoulders, arms, waist suppleness exercises, curtseys, worming up for footsteps. Then come balance, stretching and force exercises, that are performed either with support (which is more simple) or without it. Worming up finishes with various elements, leaps and tricks.
Then comes trick perfecting. Trick dances are to some extend similar to common exercises of oriental combats, hence their fighting roots are not so evident. Most of the tricks are learned by a single dancer. Many of them are performed in turn.
For perfection of leg stroke technique an obstacle made of chairs, benches and other random stuff is used. Facing an improvised barricade a dancer begins to strike his legs above it with his knees staying straightened.
Most effective are trainings in pairs. Partner can regulate the burden, to function as additional burden, to imitate an obstacle. For example to learn a jump, a partner helps beginner to turn in a right way by holding his hands. You might have seen such an element in thrillers. When learning tricks on the floor a partner can secure against falling down. Leaning against a partner it is easier to make a really high “golubets” with hovering in the upper point.
Today the repertoire of moiseev’s ensemble consists of about 300 dances of peoples of the world and also of choreographic miniatures and single act ballets. Among dancing items that have long ago become a calling card of Russia abroad there are Russian dance “Summer”, “partisans”, “old city quadrille”, naval suite “a day on a boat”. Moiseev has also staged Russian dances “meadow”, “seasons. A suite of 2 dances”, “monograms”, “chestyera. Ural dance”, “pert chastooshkas”, “Russian emulative dance”, “snowstorm (Snegurka)”.
Moiseev has also accumulated interesting material not for dance only, but for science also. His stage folk miniatures are a treasure for comparative ethnology. Single idea of emulative dance is very valuable. Every nation has its own variant of common archetype. If we look through this prism we can find that there are unexpected exchanges between Kalmyk dance of “birds” and dancing of shepherds gaucho from Argentina. “City quadrille” with its bourgeois types and sensual belly dance in “Egypt dance” are really different, but they are typical as polar models of “amorous lyrics” of peoples of the world. Thoroughly veiled sensuality of Russian dance on one hand and undisguised oriental sexuality on the other hand.
As Igor Moiseev notices in his book “I don’t see any kind of art that would be more festive, cheerful then folk dance. It opens its feelings and involves in its merriment with childish spontaneity. Folk dance makes cheeks blush and lights blood with muscular joy. It has such a store of energy that is enough to overturn all grieves, worries and fears of modern person. Folk dance doesn’t have an official choreographer. it appears from surrounding milieu. This is the difference between folk dance and classic ballet, created by rational mind.”
Since ancient times mankind used to express impression of outer world using different motions and gestures, putting in it special mood and state of soul. Outcries, singing, pantomimic play were interconnected with dance. The dance itself has always been closely connected with people’s life. That’s why every dance corresponds to temper, spirit of a nation by which it was created. Along with the chance of social structure and living conditions specific and topics of art changed, so did the dance. In its roots it lies deep on folk arts.
Folk art of dance, transmitted from generation to generation is changing uninterruptedly, enriching itself with new elements. As time passes some of the elements disappear while others come into being. The dance crystallizes and becomes more perfect. All husk dies off as insufficient and all the things that help to explain trays of national character, feelings and thoughts of people remain and is transmitted from generation to generation as most typical. Some folk dances, which are the most artistic and perfect, become property of all nations. In a live process of creation essence and form of folk dance are transformed, reflecting shifts that take place in historical, social, cultural and everyday life of people. New folk dances appear.
Folk dances differ in genres and are rich in themes and plots, they are different not only in different countries but also in different regions and areas. Choreographers had always turned to people’s art, finding new plots in it, enriching choreographic art with folk melodies, peculiar dance compositions, bright images. In Russian dances unlimited will and poetic self-oblivion reign. This is reflected in Russian choreography.
New treatment of choreographic folklore was initiated by dance ensemble under the direction of I. Moiseev. Bright theatricality of form was combined with profound exploration of national character. Many compositions of Moiseev were included into the gold reserves of classical heritage of folk-stage choreography.
Some other collectives also followed this path. Folk arts became the base of their activity. Each of the collectives tried to find their personal style, method of stage adaptation of folklore. creative work of professional folk dance ensembles influences development of classical choreographic art and enriches repertoire of amateur ensembles.
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