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Формирование навыков письменной речи в английском языке

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Дата создания 2009
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CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL BASE OF THE PROBLEM
1.1 Teaching Techniques in Studying English Language
1.1.1. Communicative Approach
1.1.2. Blended Learning
1.1.3. Reading Approach
1.1.4 Other approaches to teaching writing
1.2. Difficulties of Studying English Language Associated with Writing Skills and the Ways to Overcome Them
1.2.1. Vocabulary
1.2.1.1. Phrasal Verbs
1.2.1.2. Word Derivation
1.2.2. Differences between Spoken and Written English: Spelling
1.2.3. Expressing Thoughts in a Foreign Language
1.3. Improvement of Writing Skills in Their Correlation with the Age and Language Level
1.3.1. Different Age Groups in Studying English
1.3.1.1. Teaching Children at the Early Age
1.3.1.2. Teaching Senior Students
1.3.1.3. Teaching Adults
1.3.2. Different Levels of English
1.3.2.1. Studying English with the Beginners
1.3.2.2. Intermediate Level
1.3.2.3. Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Levels
CHAPTER 2 PRACTICAL APPROACH IN WRITING ABILITY AND COMPOSING STRATEGIES
2.1 Stages and Levels of the Development of Writing Skills
2.1.1. Effective Ways and Tools of Improving Writing Skills with the Beginners
2.1.2. Effective Ways and Tools of Improving Writing Skills with Intermediate Students
2.1.3. Effective Ways and Tools of Improving Writing Skills with Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Students
2.2. System of Exercises Directed to the Formation of the Written Skills Competence
2.2.1. Exercises and Their Correlation with Age Group
2.2.1.1. System of Exercises Created for Younger Learners
2.2.1.2. System of Exercises Created for Adults
2.2.2. Exercises and Their Correlation with Level of English
2.2.2.1. System of Exercises Designed for Beginners
2.2.2.2. System of Exercises Designed for Intermediates
2.2.2.3. System of Exercises Designed for Upper-Intermediates and Advanced Learners
2.2.3. Special Types of Exercises
2.2.3.1. Creative Exercises
2.2.3.2. Individual and Group Exercises
CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Now in practical part we’ll analyze such points as stages and levels of the development of writing skills and system of exercises directed to the formation of the written skills competence.
CHAPTER 2 PRACTICAL APPROACH IN WRITING ABILITY AND COMPOSING STRATEGIES
2.1 Stages and Levels of the Development of Writing Skills
2.1.1. Effective Ways and Tools of Improving Writing Skills with the Beginners
For beginners the teacher can propose not very complex but interesting to pupils topics, such as Introducing yourself, Job and nationalities, Personal information, The home of a family in Russia, Different means of transport, Finding your way around a town, Typical food at different meals, Talking about appearance, Visiting cities, Special occasions and important dates, Clothes and fashions, Shopping, Facts about Thailand, United Kingdom and Sweden, Customs and rules in different countries, Schooldays, Travel by train and plain, Staying in a youth hostel, and some other similar topics.
2.1.2. Effective Ways and Tools of Improving Writing Skills with Intermediate Students
The writing activities should be structured in ways that help students learn to produce cohesive and coherent discourse on their way to become self-sponsors of their own writings. For Intermediate Students the teacher can propose not very complex but interesting to pupils topics, such as Introducing yourself - Personal information, Plans and agreements, Wedding customs in different countries, Leisure activities, Different types of music, Friendship, Childhood memories, Experiences in a foreign country, Organizational skills and routine activities, Famous character from fiction, TV, Radio news broadcasts, Newspapers, Personal possessions, Style and fashions, Jobs and conditions of work, Emotional reactions, Films, Animal conservation, The Media, American regional cooking, Holiday postcards, Looking for somewhere to live, Useful objects and equipment, Practical household advice, The effects of tourism on the environment, A visit to Hong Kong, Education in Britain and the USA, Britain traditions and some other similar topics.
2.1.3. Effective Ways and Tools of Improving Writing Skills with Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Students
This level of English focuses on developing students’ written English in a range of situations and registers. The choice of interesting texts, together with manageable, motivating tasks ensure students develop fluency and accuracy in writing skills.
This exciting writing course is being launched to accommodate the needs of many who are seeking to improve their writing skills in English for their personal interest, for professional reasons and for applying to a university where the language of instruction is English. Learners will be placed in either of these courses based on the results of a writing test. The main goal of the Intermediate and Advanced course is to walk the student through the construction of a sentence to the completion of an essay. Emphasis will be placed on improving the students' ability to think in English when they are writing a text. The writing tasks will be related to broader themes relevant to academic studies. The course makes use of the latest technological aids including computers, and audio and video materials.
2.2. System of Exercises Directed to the Formation of the Written Skills Competence
2.2.1. Exercises and Their Correlation with Age Group
2.2.1.1. System of Exercises Created for Younger Learners
Activity 1. Make a list of fifteen:
Famous local names are well-known in your country but less well-known abroad;
National politicians;
Local politicians;
Historical figures;
TV personalities;
Movie stars.
Activity 2.Read the article and complete the table below.
DREAM HOLIDAY
AUSTRALIA
Australia is particularly hot from November to March. I love hot weather o I am going to arrive in Sydney in December. There is a lot of outdoor life, nd water sports to keep you cool.
SOUTH AFRICA
South Africa offers luxury safaris and the chance to see lots of exotic animals. It also has a wonderful coastline. So, after the safari, I am going to find a beach and swim. I like the sun so I’m going to go in February.
INDIA
Rajasthan is the perfect ‘India for beginners’ with its colours, views and monuments. There are also exciting markets too, with beautiful clothes and jewellery. I’m going to spend a month there in January. That’s when they say the weather is really good.
CANADA
It’s the Rockies for me in November! There are mountains and beautiful akes everywhere. I’d like to visit the Inuits in the north of Canada too, but nfortunately I’m not going to get there … there isn’t enough time.
IRELAND
In March I’m going to take part in the St Patrick’s Day festivities but I know it can be cold. I’m going to buy a beautiful Irish sweater to take back home. Dublin is a great city and there’s fantastic countryside too, so Ireland should be fun.
When to visit What to see Australia Sydney Outdoor life
Water sports South Africa India Canada November Ireland
Activity 3. Try to write a recipe of how to make a cup of tea.
Activity 4. You’re going to make a dish (e.g. a stew, a cake, a salad). Write a shopping list. Show your list to another student. Can he/she guess what you’re going to make?
Activity 5. You’re planning a special meal for some foreign visitors.
Write a menu. Explain to your guests what each dish is.
− a starter
− a main course
− a dessert
− drinks
Activity 6. Writing an Invitation
Write a few paragraphs about etiquette for visitors to your country. Invitations may be extended by letter or by telephone. They may vary in form, some are printed on special cards, others are in the form of personal letters.
Invitations to formal parties are sent well in advance. If replies are requested letters of acceptance or regret (refusal) should be sent immediately. The request for a reply is indicated as follows: R. S. V. P. (‘Repondez s’il vous plait’ which means in French ‘Please, reply’).
Activity 7. Write an invitation to the formal party and another one to the informal, what form of reply are you supposed to receive in each case?
2.2.1.2. System of Exercises Created for Adults
Program for adult students is geared towards their need to use all their gained knowledge in spontaneous speech.
Special focus is on “Survival English” – a set of conversational topics helping students to feel comfortable in different situations abroad.
Adult Starter
The level is for adults with no English language background. At this level basic speaking skills, pronunciation and elementary grammar are taught.
Adult Elementary
At this level students get “survival English training”, that is, after completing the course, they will be able to tell about themselves, their preferences, explain how to get to a certain place, order food in a restaurant, talk on the phone and discuss a variety of topics. The grammar base comprises 5 basic tenses and other aspects.
Adult Pre-Intermediate
At this level the ability to converse about every day things is developed, grammar is reviewed and more extensive vocabulary is taught.
Adult Intermediate
Special focus is on the ability of students to express their opinion on a number of issues, to converse with several people, produce spontaneous reactions to different situations. Practical grammar enabling freedom of expressing thoughts in English in the correct manner is studied.
Adult London Linguaphone
For adult students & teenagers of Intermediate & Upper-Intermediate English. This course provides the students with a wide range of phrasal verbs and proper practice on complicated grammar structures.
Adult Upper-Intermediate
This level provides fluency in speaking, rich vocabulary, fundamental knowledge of grammar, ability to read English literature in the original.
After finishing this course students can join the Discussion Group with a native speaker or continue learning the language by taking Adult Advanced Course.
Adult Advanced
The most complex grammatical structures are practiced at this level. Special attention is paid to the style of speech, volume and variety of vocabulary and ability to use it all in spontaneous speech.
2.2.2. Exercises and Their Correlation with Level of English
2.2.2.1. System of Exercises Designed for Beginners
The writing exercises should ne used according to the students’ level of English and competence.
Exercises for teaching beginners writing may include the following tasks:
To write a letter to a pen-friend (informal letter);
To put in the linking words (and, because, so, but…);
To describe where you live;
To write a letter of application (formal letter);
To describe a holiday;
To describe your friend;
To describe you capital city;
To write a postcard;
To write a thank-you letter and so on.
Activity 1. For example, the first task – to write about yourself. The teacher can give the example of the text and ask pupils to write a similar text about themselves. The example text:
My name is Yasmina Kamal and I am a student. I am 19. I am not married. I have one sister and two brothers. I live in a flat in Cairo, Egypt. I want to learn English because it is an international language.
Now, pupils write a few sentences about yourselves.
Activity 2. The second task - putting in the linking words. The teacher can give pupils the text and ask them to put in the linking words (and, because, so, but…) and so on. The example text:
My name is Rafael Ramos 1) ____ I am a doctor. I am married 2) ___ I have two children. I live in a house in Mexico 3) ____ I want to learn English 4) ___ I need it for my job.
Activity 3. The third task - to describe your friend. The teacher can give the example of the text and ask pupils to write a similar text about themselves. The example text:
A friend of mine is a fireman. He is a very brave person. Once he saved a little girl. Sometimes he has nothing to do at the job because there is no fire. Three days ago there were two fires and he came home at four a.m.
Activity 4. The task is to write a letter to a pen-friend who wants to visit your country. The teacher can give the pupils the beginning of a letter. Pupils’ task is to complete it.
Dear Mike! Liz told me that you are going to visit Moscow. Spring is the best time, especially the end of May. The weather is fine and you can go to…
Activity 5: Simple Description with Visuals:
Have students examine a picture and ask them to name the objects in it. Then ask students to write a paragraph to describe the picture. The procedure for the activity may be as follows:
Provide the class with a picture of a room such as the one below. Ask students to label the objects in the picture and have them write a paragraph to describe the picture. Provide students with expressions and language structure if needed such as: “In the classroom there is “ and have students complete the paragraph.
Activity 6: Completing a Description Paragraph:
Have students examine a picture and complete a description paragraph. The procedure for this activity may be as follows:
Examine the picture in Activity 1 and complete the following paragraph:
Paragraph:
Mary lives in a very nice room. In her room, there is a ———, ———, and a ———. There are also several———. There are no ———, but Mary does have some ———. She wants to get a ——— for her wall and a ——— for the desk this afternoon when she goes shopping.
Activity 7: Completing a Description Paragraph:
Function Words
Give students a picture and have them complete a description by supplying the prepositions and expressions required by the context.
The procedure for this activity may be as follows:
Have students examine the picture in Activity 1 and complete the following paragraph:
This is a picture of Mary’s room. Her bed is ——— the window. ——— the bed and the window is a small chest of drawers. There is a bookcase ——— her bed on the ———. She has a radio that is ——— the book case, and she puts her books ——— the book case ——— three shelves. ——— the room. She has a very nice desk where she prepares her work for school.
Activity 8: Writing a Description from Questions:
Have students examine a picture and use a set of questions as a guide to write a short description of the picture.
The procedure for this activity may be as follows:
Examine the picture in Activity 1 and write a description of it, using the questions below as guide lines.
Questions:
1. Does Mary have a nice room?
2. What kind of things does she have in the room?
3. What do you like in Mary’s room?
4. Do you have a room like Mary’s room? Describe your room in a few sentences.
Activity 9: Slash Sentences :
Give students a set of sentence cues and have them write a short narrative paragraph.
The procedure for this activity may be as follows:
Make comlete sentences according to the model.
Model: The Smiths / Summer / in the country/ spend
The Smiths spend Summer in the country.
1. all / family / In the morning / to get up / arround / 8’oclock.
2. Mr. Smith / the kitchen / coffee / to prepare / to go down strairs.
3. his / wife / then / breakfast / to go outside / in / the garden.
Activity 6: Sentence Combining
Give students a set of propositions and have them combine them into complete sentences:
The procedure for this activity may be as follows:
Provide students with  set of propositions such as the ones below:
1. The man is tall.
2. The man has dark hair.
3. The man is standing by the door.
4. The man looks suspicious
Have students combine the propositions in one sentence.
Activity 10: Composition based on oral interview.
Have students interview a partner and a composition telling what they learned about the person they interviewed.
The procedure for this activity may be as follows:
Have students interview a partner a certain topics and have then write a composition to tell what they had learned about this partner sample topics:
1. Talk about yourself and your family (i.e., where are you from, where your family lives, your hobbies, etc…).
2. Talk about what you like and dislike about your school.
3. Describe a memorable event.
4. Describe your goals and future plans.
5. Describe a recent vacation.
2.2.2.2. System of Exercises Designed for Intermediates
Activity 1. The first task may be the following one. You’re going to take part in a discussion on the theme: More technology means less communication. You can agree or disagree with the statement. In either case make a list of your opinions. The example beginning:
From my point of view we are the witnesses of great technical revolution. On the other hand we have much more opportunities for business communication. I mean we use E-mail, mobile phones, faxes, etc…
Activity 2. To write an informal e-mail. The teacher gives the list of beginnings and endings, pupil’s task is to use them in their informal e-mail.
The example list of beginnings and endings:
Just a note to say thank you so much for having me to stay last weekend.
Give my regards to Robert.
I look forward to hearing from you at the earliest time possible.
Dear Mr. Smith.
Let me know as soon as possible.
Love to Ellie See you then.
Yours sincerely, Thames Valley Computer Software.
We trust this arrangement meets with your satisfaction.
Activity 3. The pupils are given the story. Their task is to compose the different ending of a story.
Activity 4. write a list of pros and cons for one of these topics:
Getting older
Having a university degree
Having children while young
Activity 5. To write a letter or fax including the following information:
Thank for the enquiry
Say you are pleased to confirm the reservation for the rooms and the dates having been stated by the client
Tell that all the rooms come with en-suite bathroom and a sea view
Each room is 50 $ per night
End the letter saying that you look forward to welcoming a client and his family
Finish with Yours sincerely, Anne Westcombe.
2.2.2.3. System of Exercises Designed for Upper-Intermediates and Advanced Learners
For Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Students the teacher can propose not very complex but interesting to pupils topics, such as Sings in English from around the world, Discussion about learning; learning styles, Customs and rituals in different cultures, Customs in different age groups, Italian football, Hobbies and leisure activities, Arranging a day out in Boston, USA , Planning a tourist guide of a town or region , Personal achievements and ambitions , Talking about holidays, An interview with an English teacher in Sudan, Strange laws around the word, The legal system in Britain, The story of the inventor and traveler, Francis Galton , Strange inventions, What your choice of food reveals about you, A computerized home, Items of new technology, Talking about lucky escapes, Stories about good and bad luck, Favourite music and books, Different shopping habits, How to survive the 21st century, Future trends and party politics, The legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Tables, Characteristics of different brands and products, Global advertising and some other similar topics.
Activity 1. Talking about cultural differences the teacher can propose pupils to read the following text and write about a custom in your country.
A quarter of an hour in Japan will convince that you are among exquisitely well-mannered people. You will, of course, immediately notice their habit of bowing. Everybody keeps bowing. Everybody keeps bowing to everybody else with a great deal of natural and inimitable grace. Bowing is neither less or more silly than shaking hands or kissing the cheek, but it is quainter. More formal, more oriental; it is also infections. After a few hours you start bowing yourself. But you bow too deeply or not deeply enough; you bow to the wrong person at the wrong time. You’ll discover that the Japanese have a complicated hierarchy in bowing: who bows to whom, how deeply and for how long.
One of the American states had an early traffic law which laid down that if two cars met at an intersection, neither was to move before the other had gone. Similarly, if two Japanese bow, neither is to straighten up before the other stands erect in front of him. A little complicated to us; they manage it without difficulty and even the smallest difference in rank, standing, age, social position will be subtly reflected in that split second one person’s bow is shorter than the other’s.
Activity 2. Linking words. The task may be the following one. Write the story from Dr. Green’s point of view. Use the linking words when, as, while, before, after where possible. You have the beginning of the story.
When I finished my studies, I applied for a job in a psychiatric hospital. …..
Activity 3. A review of a book or film.
Activity 4. Research and report writing. Trade in your country.
Activity 5. Formal and informal letters – recognizing formal style, writing an informal letter.
Activity 6. Describing your favorite part of town.
Activity 7. Contrasting ideas - whereas. However – although. Writing about an invention you couldn’t life without.
Activity 8. Writing a fan letter.
Activity 9. Writing about a period in history.
Activity 10. Writing a play with stage directions.
Activity 11. Describing a career. Word order and focus of attention.
2.2.3. Special Types of Exercises
2.2.3.1. Creative Exercises
Some of writing teachers used this prompt with good results. Start by freewriting, beginning with the words "Your mother." You can go any direction you want, so long as those are the first two words. Try your best to write a story, or the beginnings of one. And don't be afraid to start over. (Hint: the best responses in our class came from the people who didn't actually write about mothers.)
Composing crosswords can also be regarded as a special type of exercises.
Activity 1.This exercise is ideal for writing groups, but can be done with as few as two people. By exchanging secrets, fiction writers are prompted to explore a topic they may not have considered otherwise.
Each writer should take out a piece of paper.
Write down one secret and fold the paper up.
Put all of the secrets in a hat, box, or other container.
Each person draws a secret. (Draw again if you get your own.)
Use the secret you receive as a jumping-off point for your short story.
At the end of the session, or the next day, share both the short story and the secret that inspired it.
Tips:
Be creative in how you work with the secret.
Have fun, both in picking a secret for the hat and in writing about the secret you choose. The best part about this writing exercise is the element of surprise.
What You Need:
Secrets
Paper
Pen
Container of some sort.
Activity 2. Pictures, and especially photographs, carry with them implicit narratives, making them ideal for generating new short story ideas. Choose one of the photographs, or use this exercise with a class or writing group, having each student/member bring in a picture and trade with someone. Whether you do it alone or with a group, the exercise will help loosen you up and get you to explore new themes. For groups and classes, exercises like these break up the routine and build cohesion.
Either choose an image from the selection of the photographs, or have your students each bring in a picture and trade. With groups, have some kind of system for the trade so that students don't plan ahead. (Have everyone pass their picture to the right, for instance.)
Spend ten to fifteen minutes free writing on the photograph.
Choose some aspect of your free writing exercise as a starting point for a short story. The story does not necessarily have to explain the picture, so long as the picture has in some way inspired the resulting work.
Share the stories (either that day or the next time the class meets, depending on how much time you have) alongside the pictures, explaining, when necessary, how the picture resulted in the work.
If you wish to continue working on the story, you may want to refer to articles on plot, dialogue, and character as you revise.
Tips:
Don't worry overmuch about conforming closely to the photograph. The point of the exercise is to get you started writing -- ideally something you wouldn't have written otherwise.
You can also do this exercise solo by opening a magazine at random or asking a friend to present you with an image. You can also give yourself the assignment of using an image from that day's mail. (Generally junk mail includes some images.)
Don't use something you've written in the past just because it fits the picture. Use the exercise to write something entirely new.
What You Need:
The photographs in the link above, or another image
Paper
Pen
Activity 3. Though it's easy to fall into the habit of always writing in the first person, it's crucial to be able to use third person as well. Both first person and third person have their strengths and weaknesses; what works for one story may not work for another. This exercise will help you observe the effect of writing in the third person point of view to add this tool to your toolbox.
And how do you know which point of view is best? "How to Choose a Point of View" will help you think strategically about this decision.
Difficulty: Average.
Time Required: 1 hour.
Here's How:
Choose a particularly compelling -- or problematic -- scene from a piece of prose you have recently written in the first person.
Rewrite the piece from the third person point of view. Take your time. It may require some strategizing to pull off the transformation. You'll also have to consider whether or not you want to use third person omniscient or limited. In moving from first to third, it might be easiest to try third person limited first.
Notice how the change in point of view changes the voice and the mood of the story. What freedom do you have with this narrator that you did not have before? Likewise, are there any limitations in using this point of view?
Make a list of three or four advantages of the new point of view: ways the new voice helps develop plot and/or character.
Make a list of the limitations of the third person point of view with regard to this particular piece. Is it the most effective way of telling this story? Were there ways in which it was harder to develop your central character with third person? Did it force you to use other techniques in revealing your character? Was the voice stronger or weaker? If weaker, was the trade-off worthwhile?
If the new point of view works well with this scene, consider changing the point of view for the entire piece. Otherwise, return to your original.
Tips:
Even if changing to the third person point of view has not improved this particular piece, remain open to it in future work. Use the lessons learned in this exercise to evalaute point of view in all the fiction you write.
Lorrie Moore has a good explanation for how she chooses POV: "There are times when the first person is necessary for observing others (not the protagonist) in a voice that simultaneously creates a character (usually the protagonist); then there are times when the third person is necessary for observing the protagonist in a voice that is not the character’s but the story’s."
What You Need:
Scene from a recent story or novel.
Computer or paper and pen.
Quiet place to work.
Activity 4. While modifiers -- adjectives and adverbs -- can add to a story, too many, or the wrong ones, can bog down your prose and lead to weaker nouns and verbs. This writing exercise, by forcing you to hold off on modifiers altogether, will challenge you to choose your nouns and verbs with care.
Difficulty: Average.
Time Required: 2-4 hours in two separate sittings.
Here's How:
In the process of writing your next story, choose to write one or two scenes without the use of adjectives or adverbs.
As you write, take time to focus on how the correct verb or noun can convey the mood or feeling you are striving for in the scene.
After a few days or a week, re-read the scenes. Note how your writing changed as a result of the exercise.
Add modifiers where you feel them to be essential to the piece.
You can also do this exercise with something you have already written, removing the modifiers to see if that strengthens the work.
Tips:
Beware of reliance on common modifiers such as "pretty," "little," and "very." Strunk and White in "The Elements of Style" are particularly ruthless when it comes to these types of overused qualifiers, referring to them as "The leeches that infest the pond of prose, sucking the blood of words."
Don't be afraid to go back to using modifiers to a certain extent; you'll find very few examples of writers who don't use them. Think of this exercise more as training for a race. Weights are great during training, but you don't wear them the day of the race.
If this exercise hasn't convinced you, listen to Mark Twain: "When you catch an adjective, kill it. No, I don't mean utterly, but kill most of them -- then the rest will be valuable. They weaken when they are close together. They give strength when they are wide apart. An adjective habit, or a wordy, diffuse, flowery habit, once fastened upon a person, is as hard to get rid of as any other vice."
What You Need:
Time and space alone.
Paper or computer.
Pen (or computer).
Ideas for a story or scenes from a story.
2.2.3.2. Individual and Group Exercises
Activity 1. If you think you don't have time to write, think again. See what you can produce with a simple set of writing prompts and ten minutes of your time with this creative writing exercise inspired by Rita Dove's exercise "Ten-Minute Spill."
Write for ten minutes, incorporating a common proverb, adage, or familiar phrase ("between the devil and the deep blue sea," "one foot in the grave," "a stitch in time saves nine," "the whole nine yards," "a needle in a haystack," etc.) that you have changed in some way, as well as five of the following words:
cliff
blackberry
needle
cloud
voice
mother
whirr
lick
Don’t worry about creating a story right now: just focus on following the parameters and writing for your ten minutes. Write down whatever comes into your head without worrying about whether it’s good or not. You might surprise yourself. Then compare your story to the stories of others’. It may also be an individual work.
Activity 2. When I've used this creative writing exercise in a class, it's consistently resulted in the most interesting work. Begin by thinking of someone for whom you have strong feelings, and then complete each of the five steps.
You'll notice that each brief instruction is on a separate page. This was done to prevent you from looking ahead. The exercise works best, and is easiest to do, if you really take one step at a time. Don't worry if the steps -- and your responses -- don't seem immediately related to each other. Seemingly illogical associations often result in more interesting and truer work.
As with all the exercises on this site, there's no right or wrong answer. If you're getting something down on the page, you've already succeeded. Use the links below to get started.
Step 1. Describe the person's hands.
Step 2. Describe something he or she is doing with his/her hands.
Step 3. Use a metaphor to say something about some exotic place. (Again, just focus on this step. Don't worry about it's all going to come together in the end.)
Step 4. Ask this person a question somehow involving #2 & #3 above.
Step 5. The person looks up or toward you, notices you there, and gives an answer that shows he or she only got part of what you were asking.
Edit. Now spend some time shaping your responses into a poem or short story. Then compare your story to the stories of others’. It may also be an individual work.
2.2.3.3. System of Exercises Depending on the Specialization: Business English, Technical English, etc.
If you need a crash course in your professional specialty or preparation for a professional interview, then these special programs are already developed in the methodology of English teaching.
Currently, the most in-demand areas are: business courses, courses for lawyers, secretaries, merchant seamen, programmers as well as preparations for passing international examinations such as IELTS, TOEFL, etc.
Studies may as individuals, or in small groups.
Firstly, it’s known that on different continents, people speak in different variations of English. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is the most popular test of American English. The next generation Internet-Based TOEFL or IB TOEFL appeared in Russia test sites in March 2006. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is an internationally owned and globally recognized English examination. Every year more than a million people take these examinations.
Business English is typically taught to business people who need to use it in their daily duties. Sometimes they purposefully take such a course to help improve their performance on the job, other times they are required to take it and aren't always happy about being in your classroom. In some countries their performance in the English classroom and successful completion of a certain number of courses is a requirement for moving up the career ladder.
What this all means is that the people in the classroom WANT or NEED or are REQUIRED to learn Business English. Motivation can be an issue in the classroom as students are often required to take classes early in the morning, before their regular duties begin, or late in the day following a full day of work.
"Realia" or "authentic materials" are what create relevance in the Business English classroom. Teachers should talk to students, ask them what they need help with. Ask them about difficult conversations they have had and what the problem might have been. Ask them about writing they need to do, emails they must answer - and then fit your course book and lessons into their specific needs.
Students should be encouraged to bring their email, correspondence and reports to the instructor so they can devise lessons and tasks for everyone to work on - that are relevant to their work place.
Because much business communication is confidential - or product information is proprietary - students should block out confidential information. NO ONE wants photocopied handouts to get someone fired.
Students of Business English should try to study the vocabulary and grammar that is most directly tied to their area of work, be it accounting, finance, international trade - or even hospitality. For actually USING language though, you should learn to put your vocabulary into the functions in the Lessons and Activities section of this website. Functions are the best way to learn to use your new language skills. Functions give purpose to the language.
Teachers of Business English need to focus clearly on the needs of their students and work with them in their specialties in terms of vocabulary. This can be a problem for many teachers if they have no experience in the Business World or in their students' specialty area. Not to worry - that's what this website is for - and the lessons in the Functions section of the website {Lessons and Activities section} - to add relevance and motivation to your lessons.
English for technical communication (ETC) is a novel development of English for specific purpose on the demand of the society for improving students' ability in communicating technical information. To assess the applicability of ETC teaching, specially designed ETC courses are delivered to classes of postgraduates, and questionnaire and test analysis are carried out at end of the course. Usually the ETC training significantly develops students' skills in technical reading and writing, but not so much in speaking. This requires improving pedagogics and increasing the mutual communication so as to raise students' ability in oral English.
Ever since 1950s, EST has experienced several phases of development. At first, people tried to establish the syllabus and curriculum of EST through register analysis, that is, according to the features of grammar and vocabulary of the language used in certain specialty. A Course in Basic Scientific English compiled by Ewer and Latorre (1969) is a typical example of the syllabus on register analysis.
Register analysis focused on language at sentence level, while discourse analysis shifted attention to the level above the sentence. It focused on how sentences are organized to form discourse, and the linguistic methods used to determine the modes of organization. A Discourse Approach by Louis Trimble (1985) is representative of this approach.
Target situation analysis held that the purpose of an ESP course is to enable learners to function adequately in a target situation. Therefore the ESP course design should proceed by identifying the target situation first, and then carrying out a rigorous analysis of the linguistic features of that situation. The process is usually known as needs analysis.
So, English for specific purpose, or ESP for short, is a pedagogy in which the syllabus, contents and methods are determined according to the needs of learners' specialized subjects.
CONCLUSION
Having investigated the theoretical and practical material on the theme of the research we achieved the following results:
Have analyzed teaching techniques in Studying English Language (Communicative Approach, Blended Learning, Reading Approach, Other approaches to teaching writing);
Have dealt with the difficulties of Studying English Language associated with Writing Skills and the ways to overcome Them (Vocabulary, Phrasal Verbs, Word Derivation, Differences between Spoken and Written English: Spelling,, Expressing Thoughts in a Foreign Language);
Have spoken on the improvement of Writing Skills in their correlation with the age and language level (teaching children at the early age, teaching senior students, teaching adults, different levels of English, studying English with the Beginners, Intermediate Level, Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Levels);
Have indicated the main stages and levels of the development of writing skills (effective ways and tools of improving writing Skills with the Beginners, Intermediate students and Upper-Intermediate and Advanced students);
Have took up questions of system of exercises directed to the formation of the written skills competence (exercises and their Correlation with age group, special types of exercises, creative exercises, Individual and group exercises);
Have worked out exercises in their correlation with level of English and age (system of exercises created for younger learners, for adults, for Beginners, for Intermediates, for Upper-Intermediates and Advanced Learners).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Амирова Т. А. К истории и теории графемики. - М., 1977.
Баранова Л.Л. Онтология английской письменной речи. Москва. МГУ, 1998.
Бергельсон М.Б. Языковые аспекты виртуальной коммуникации // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 19. Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация, № 1. 2002, с.55–67.
Бодуэн де Куртенэ И.А. Избранные труды по общему языкознанию. т. 2, М, 1963, с. 209–234.
Елухина Н.В. Роль дискурса в межкультурной коммуникации и методика формирования дискурсивной компетенции // Иностранные языки в школе.- 2002.- №3.- С.9-12.
Зиндер Л.Р. Очерк общей теории письма. - Л.: Наука, 1987.
Каплич Лариса Викторовна. Начало обучения продуктивной письменной речи в лингвистическом вузе: Дис. ... канд. пед. наук: 13.00.02 : Москва, 1996 232 c
Николаева Т.М. Письменная речь и специфика ее изучения Вопросы языкознания. 1963, № 3.
Шатилов С.Ф. Методика обучения немецкому языку в средней школе. Л., 1977. -295 с.
Anderson Richard and others. Developing writing skills: http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/DevelopingWritingSkills.htm
Ann Raimes Techniques in Teaching Writing New York, Oxford University Press, 1983.
Beverly Alsleben. Thirty Minutes with Mikal. http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/1285
Bolinger, Dwight. The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. – P. xii.
Crystal David. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. – P.118.
Crystal David. The Penguin Dictionary of Language. - Penguin Books - England – 1999.
Danesco B. How To Develop Your Writing Skills: http://www.howtodothings.com/hobbies/a2705-how-to-develop-your-writing-skills.html
Description of levels. British Council: http://www.britishcouncil.org/ru/colombia-english-learn-english-in-colombia-courses-for-adults-description-of-levels.htm
Dr. Wayne D. Lance. Teaching Writing: Preschool, Kindergarten, and First Grade: http://www.iched.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=iched&item_id=teach_writing_prek-1
Eric S. Nelson. Suggestions for Helping Non-Native Writers: http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_helping.html
Gail Tompkins. Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product. Person Education. 2003.
Gudschinsky Sarah C. A manual of literacy for preliterate peoples: http://www.pnglanguages.org/lingualinks/literacy/ReferenceMaterials/AMnlOfLtrcyFrPrltrtPpls/contents.htm
How to Improve Your Writing Skills: http://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Writing-Skills
James D. Williams. Preparing To Teach Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum. 2003. – 403 p.
Kimberly L. Keith “Help Your Child Learn Writing Skills” http://childparenting.about.com/od/learningenrichment/a/writingskills.htm
Kimberly Steele. Teaching Writing: http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/writing/menu.html
Kolln, Martha and Robert Funk. Understanding English Grammar. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. – P.35.
McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. – P.772.
Rackham J., Bertagnalli O. From Sight to Insight.-The Dryden Press, 1988.
Sebranek P.,Meyer V., Kemper D. A Student Handbook for Writing and Learning.-D.C. Heath and Company, 1996.
Sellin R., Winters E. Cross-Cultural Communication. Internationalization of Documentation.Internet Communucation. http: //www.bena.com/ewinters/sect7. html, 1999.
Shawna Shapiro. Working with multilingual (esl) students tutor training workshop: http://staff.washington.edu/shapis/WCtutors_ESLWorkshop_Fall07.doc
Sheryl Holt. Responding to Non-Native Speakers of English: http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_speakers.html
Susan B. Neuman PhD. Adventures in Writing: http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=629
Susan Jindrich. Help your children learn to write: http://www.meddybemps.com/7.22.html
Teacher's corner: Writing. http://www.hio.ft.hanze.nl/thar/essay.htm. http://ivash.by.ru/writing.htm
Troyka L.Q., Nudelman J. Steps in Composition. - Prentice-Hall, 1989.
 Ann Raimes Techniques in Teaching Writing New York, Oxford University Press, 1983.
McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. – P.772.
Crystal, David. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. – P.118.
Kolln, Martha and Robert Funk. Understanding English Grammar. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. – P.35.
McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. – P.773.
McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. – P.773.
Bolinger, Dwight. The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. – P. xii.
Bolinger, Dwight. The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. – P. xii.
Bolinger, Dwight. The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. – P. xii.
Crystal David. The Penguin Dictionary of Language. - Penguin Books - England – 1999.
Gudschinsky, Sarah C. “A manual of literacy for preliterate peoples”
Susan B. Neuman PhD “Adventures in Writing” http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=629
Dr. Wayne D. Lance “Teaching Writing: Preschool, Kindergarten, and First Grade” http://www.iched.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=iched&item_id=teach_writing_prek-1
Susan B. Neuman PhD “Adventures in Writing” http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=629
Dr. Wayne D. Lance “Teaching Writing: Preschool, Kindergarten, and First Grade” http://www.iched.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=iched&item_id=teach_writing_prek-1
Susan B. Neuman PhD “Adventures in Writing” http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=629
Dr. Wayne D. Lance “Teaching Writing: Preschool, Kindergarten, and First Grade” http://www.iched.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=iched&item_id=teach_writing_prek-1
Susan Jindrich “Help your children learn to write” http://www.meddybemps.com/7.22.html
Kimberly L. Keith “Help Your Child Learn Writing Skills” http://childparenting.about.com/od/learningenrichment/a/writingskills.htm
Danesco B. How To Develop Your Writing Skills: http://www.howtodothings.com/hobbies/a2705-how-to-develop-your-writing-skills.html
http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/DevelopingWritingSkills.htm
http://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Writing-Skills
Eric S. Nelson “Suggestions for Helping Non-Native Writers Eric S. Nelson” http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_helping.html
Sheryl Holt “Responding to Non-Native Speakers of English” http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_speakers.html
Sheryl Holt “Responding to Non-Native Speakers of English” http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_speakers.html
Shawna Shapiro “Working with multilingual (esl) students tutor training workshop” http://staff.washington.edu/shapis/WCtutors_ESLWorkshop_Fall07.doc
Beverly Alsleben “Thirty Minutes with Mikal” http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/1285
Beverly Alsleben “Thirty Minutes with Mikal” http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/1285
Sheryl Holt “Responding to Non-Native Speakers of English” http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_speakers.html
Description of levels. British Council: http://www.britishcouncil.org/ru/colombia-english-learn-english-in-colombia-courses-for-adults-description-of-levels.htm
Description of levels. British Council: http://www.britishcouncil.org/ru/colombia-english-learn-english-in-colombia-courses-for-adults-description-of-levels.htm
79

Список литературы

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.Амирова Т. А. К истории и теории графемики. - М., 1977.
2.Баранова Л.Л. Онтология английской письменной речи. Москва. МГУ, 1998.
3.Бергельсон М.Б. Языковые аспекты виртуальной коммуникации // Вестник Московского университета. Серия 19. Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация, № 1. 2002, с.55–67.
4.Бодуэн де Куртенэ И.А. Избранные труды по общему языкознанию. т. 2, М, 1963, с. 209–234.
5.Елухина Н.В. Роль дискурса в межкультурной коммуникации и методика формирования дискурсивной компетенции // Иностранные языки в школе.- 2002.- №3.- С.9-12.
6.Зиндер Л.Р. Очерк общей теории письма. - Л.: Наука, 1987.
7.Каплич Лариса Викторовна. Начало обучения продуктивной письменной речи в лингвистическом вузе: Дис. ... канд. пед. наук: 13.00.02 : Москва, 1996 232 c
8.Николаева Т.М. Письменная речь и специфика ее изучения Вопросы языкознания. 1963, № 3.
9.Шатилов С.Ф. Методика обучения немецкому языку в средней школе. Л., 1977. -295 с.
10.Anderson Richard and others. Developing writing skills: http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/DevelopingWritingSkills.htm
11.Ann Raimes Techniques in Teaching Writing New York, Oxford University Press, 1983.
12.Beverly Alsleben. Thirty Minutes with Mikal. http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/1285
13.Bolinger, Dwight. The Phrasal Verb in English. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971. – P. xii.
14.Crystal David. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. – P.118.
15.Crystal David. The Penguin Dictionary of Language. - Penguin Books - England – 1999.
16.Danesco B. How To Develop Your Writing Skills: http://www.howtodothings.com/hobbies/a2705-how-to-develop-your-writing-skills.html
17.Description of levels . British Council: http://www.britishcouncil.org/ru/colombia-english-learn-english-in-colombia-courses-for-adults-description-of-levels.htm
18.Dr. Wayne D. Lance. Teaching Writing: Preschool, Kindergarten, and First Grade: http://www.iched.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=iched&item_id=teach_writing_prek-1
19.Eric S. Nelson. Suggestions for Helping Non-Native Writers: http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_helping.html
20.Gail Tompkins. Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product. Person Education. 2003.
21.Gudschinsky Sarah C. A manual of literacy for preliterate peoples: http://www.pnglanguages.org/lingualinks/literacy/ReferenceMaterials/AMnlOfLtrcyFrPrltrtPpls/contents.htm
22.How to Improve Your Writing Skills: http://www.wikihow.com/Improve-Your-Writing-Skills
23.James D. Williams. Preparing To Teach Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum. 2003. – 403 p.
24.Kimberly L. Keith “Help Your Child Learn Writing Skills” http://childparenting.about.com/od/learningenrichment/a/writingskills.htm
25.Kimberly Steele. Teaching Writing: http://www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/writing/menu.html
26.Kolln, Martha and Robert Funk. Understanding English Grammar. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998. – P.35.
27.McArthur, Tom, ed. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. – P.772.
28.Rackham J., Bertagnalli O. From Sight to Insight.-The Dryden Press, 1988.
29.Sebranek P.,Meyer V., Kemper D. A Student Handbook for Writing and Learning.-D.C. Heath and Company, 1996.
30.Sellin R., Winters E. Cross-Cultural Communication. Internationalization of Documentation.Internet Communucation. http: //www.bena.com/ewinters/sect7. html, 1999.
31.Shawna Shapiro. Working with multilingual (esl) students tutor training workshop: http://staff.washington.edu/shapis/WCtutors_ESLWorkshop_Fall07.doc
32.Sheryl Holt. Responding to Non-Native Speakers of English: http://writing.umn.edu/tww/nonnative/nn_speakers.html
33.Susan B. Neuman PhD. Adventures in Writing: http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=629
34.Susan Jindrich. Help your children learn to write: http://www.meddybemps.com/7.22.html
35.Teacher's corner: Writing. http://www.hio.ft.hanze.nl/thar/essay.htm. http://ivash.by.ru/writing.htm
36.Troyka L.Q., Nudelman J. Steps in Composition. - Prentice-Hall, 1989.
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