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Методика обучения чтению в старших классах (на материале текстов общественно-политич. тематики).

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Методика обучения чтению в старших классах средней школы (на материале текстов общественно-политической тематики)
Содержание
Введение
Глава IТеоретические основы обучения чтению
1.1.Понятие речевой деятельности. Механизмы речи
1.2Чтение как вид речевой деятельности
1.2.1Психологические основания чтения как рецептивного вида речевой деятельности
1.2.2Виды чтения
1.2.3Подходы к развитию чтения
1.2.4Умения и навыки, обеспечивающие процессы понимания при чтении
Выводы по Главе I
Глава IIМетодика обучения чтению на материале текстов общественно-политической тематики
2.1Цели обучения чтению на старшем этапе
2.2Система упражнений для обучения различным видам чтения на материале текстов общественно-политической тематики
2.2. Характеристика текстов газетно-публицистического стиля
Выводы по Главе II
Заключение
Список литературы
Приложение

Фрагмент работы для ознакомления

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Приложение
Ознакомительное чтение
Text I
Oil slick threat to environment
From The Times January 15, 2007
Part I Pre-reading activities.
Consider the problem of environmental protection. In which way oil slick in the sea can threaten the environment? Think of the latest disasters of similar nature. Tell your fellow students about the details and consequences.
Part II reading
Read the text
STOCKHOLM An oil slick from a grounded cargo ship has blackened large stretches of the Norwegian coast, threatening birdlife and posing a serious environmental danger, officials said.
“It’s hard to assess, maybe 50 to 100km [30 to 60 miles] of coast have been touched,” Kurt Oddekalv, of the environmental group Norges Miljoevernforbund, said. “Hundreds of birds are threatened . . . I’ve already found a dead bird with oil on its chest.”
The coastguard said that 370 tonnes of oil had seeped from the 180-metre ship, which ran aground and split during bad weather near Fedje, southern Norway. It contained 585 tonnes of heavy fuel and 72 tonnes of diesel for its own use. About 130 tonnes of oil emulsion has been removed from the sea.
The ship’s 25 crew members were evacuated safely. (AFP)
Text comprehension
Exercise I. Answer the following questions to the text.
What environmental disaster is the Norwegian coast facing?
What is the cause of the disaster?
Part III Word Wealth
Exercise I. Make up a list of words for the topical vocabulary: “Environmental Protection”
Exercise II. Find in the text English equivalents to the following:
Сесть на мель
Грузовое судно
Тяжелое топливо
Оценить (масштабы бедствия)
От 30 до 60 миль побережья пострадало от разлива нефти
Вытекать, просачиваться
Нефтяная пленка
Изучающее чтение
Text II
Hillary runs for the White House as ‘new Thatcher’
by Sarah Baxter, Washington
from The Sunday Times / January 21, 2007
Part I Pre-reading activities
Answer the following questions:
Who is Margaret Thatcher? What is she famous for? Why was she called ‘the Iron Lady’?
Study the following words and word combinations and say what they mean:
Presidency presidential race
to run for the White House glitz
policy/politics
Part II. Reading Comprehension
Read the text.
HILLARY CLINTON is to be presented as America’s Margaret Thatcher as she tries to become the first woman to win the White House. As she entered the 2008 presidential race yesterday, a senior adviser said that her campaign would emphasise security, defence and personal strengths reminiscent of the Iron Lady.
“Their policies are totally different but they are both perceived as very tough,” said Terry McAuliffe, Clinton’s campaign chairman. “She is strong on foreign policy. People have got to know you are going to keep them safe.”
Clinton, 59, used her website to announce that she was taking the first step of her campaign by forming a presidential exploratory committee. “I’m in. And I’m in to win,” she said.
It made the New York senator the instant frontrunner for the Democratic nomination. “She has the name recognition, the money, the glitz, she’s got it all,” McAuliffe said.
If she wins, she will return to the White House where she spent eight years as first lady during Bill Clinton’s presidency from 1993-2001.
McAuliffe predicted a rough campaign. “She is going to fight for herself and she is going to have people around her who will fight,” he said. “They are going to play mean, nasty and dirty on the other side. You don’t walk into a knife fight without adequate gloves.”
The Clinton campaign intends to paint the Republican nominee as President George W Bush’s political heir, particularly over the war in Iraq. “George Bush is going to be on the ticket whether they like it or not,” McAuliffe added. Clinton said she would talk to voters about “how to bring the right end to the war in Iraq and restore respect for America around the world”. She also hopes to appeal to women voters in their twenties and thirties.
Clinton faces strong competition from Barack Obama, the charismatic but inexperienced 45-year-old Illinois senator. The race is already being billed “the magic vs the machine”.
Text Comprehension
Exercise I. Answer the following questions:
Who represents ‘the magic’ and who represents ‘the machine’ in the formula for the current presidential race ‘the magic vs the machine’?
What did Hilary Clinton mean saying ‘I’m in. And I’m in to win’?
Which factors are Clinton’s strengths in the current presidential campaign?
What is meant by a metaphorical saying ‘You don’t walk into a knife fight without adequate gloves’?
What is Clinton’s policy towards her opponent – B. Obama?
Which facts prove that H. Clinton is going to become another ‘Iron Lady’?
Exercise II. Translate the following paragraph into Russian:
The Clinton campaign intends to paint the Republican nominee as President George W Bush’s political heir, particularly over the war in Iraq. “George Bush is going to be on the ticket whether they like it or not,” McAuliffe added. Clinton said she would talk to voters about “how to bring the right end to the war in Iraq and restore respect for America around the world”. She also hopes to appeal to women voters in their twenties and thirties.
Part III Word Wealth
Exercise I. Give definitions to the following words and expressions:
Reminiscent of smb
To face competition from smb
To play mean
Charismatic
Personal strengths
Exercise II. Paraphrase the following phrases/underlined parts of the sentences:
To win the White House
Political heir
To bring the right end to the war
Name recognition
To appeal to the voters
Women voters in their twenties and thirties
It made the New York senator the instant frontrunner for the Democratic nomination.
George Bush is going to be on the ticket whether they like it or not
Exercise III. Make a list of words and expressions for topical vocabulary “Elections”.
Exercise IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions and adverbs:
She is strong ___ foreign policy.
Her campaign would emphasise security, defence and personal strengths reminiscent ___ the Iron Lady.
They are going to play mean, nasty and dirty ___ the other side.
Clinton said she would talk ___ voters about “how to bring the right end ___ the war in Iraq and restore respect ___ America ___ the world”.
Text III
IT'S MONEY DOWN THE TRAIN
You pay fares for relocated staff on 4-hour day
From DAILY RECORD / 22 January 2007
Exclusive by John Ferguson
Part I Pre-reading exercises
Study the following words and word combinations. Judging by these key words to the text, try to guess what problem (social, political, economic, cultural, ethic) the text may be devoted to?
Travel expenses Train fare
Taxpayer Civil servants
Public sector workers Government officials
To relocate jobs/office Staff
To hand down orders Executive (n)
Commuter Decentralize jobs
Trade union Spokesman/spokeswoman
Estimate To benefit
The text reports of the events taking place in Scotland. What do you know about this part of Great Britain: its political status within the country, governmental arrangement, the degree of independence from the central British authorities?
Mind the following contracted nominations and names for governmental and public institutions:
MSP – Members of the Scottish Parliament;
Labour Members – members of the Parliament belonging to the Labour Party;
Transport Scotland – Ministry of Transport, Scotland;
Audit Scotland – Scottish governmental institution for auditing.
PART II Reading
Read the text
DOZENS of civil servants are working just four hours a day after their jobs were relocated. Taxpayers are forking out £5000 a week to pay them travel expenses. And extra workers have had to be taken on to make up for man hours lost while the staff are getting to and from their new office.
It happened after the Executive moved 150 public sector workers from Edinburgh to Glasgow last year. About 57 of the staff, who work for Transport Scotland, now face a longer journey to work. The Executive agreed to pay their extra travel expenses. And the additional time they take to get to and from the office is taken off their working day.
One Transport Scotland worker said: "It does seem a bit ridiculous. I live in Edinburgh and my train fare, which is about £18, is paid every day. I get about three hours knocked off the working day - it's like getting paid more to work less. I only work four hours a day. Not only are travelling expenses being paid but they have had to take on more workers and casual workers to make up for the man hours being lost. It must be costing a fortune. A lot of the people who work here feel it is another crazy scheme by government officials that hasn't been thought out properly."
The worker added: "I doubt that the directors of Transport Scotland would have wanted to do this. But it is orders handed down from the Executive. One of the jokes in the office is that other commuters can't get a seat on the train from Edinburgh in the morning because Transport Scotland workers have taken them all."
The move to Glasgow was part of a policy to decentralise jobs and benefit people in different areas.
But the policy has been blasted by MSPs - including Labour members - government spending watchdog Audit Scotland and trade unions.
Susan Deacon, Labour MSP for Edinburgh East and Musselburgh, said: "You cannot just have relocation at any expense and various bodies, including Audit Scotland, have been critical of the way it has been handled. Decentralisation of jobs is a good idea but people need to be confident that it is done in the right way."
Derek Brownlee, Scottish Tory finance spokesman, said: "It seems like a crazy way to be spending public money and you have to ask what it is doing to the service being provided. I think everyone was in favour of the relocation policy but it has been handled in a ham-fisted way. The cost of this relocation and others like it has been huge. I don't think anyone is asking whether it is the best way to spend public money."
The Scottish branch of the Public and Commercial Services union called for future relocations to be stopped until the policy was reviewed.
A spokeswoman said: "We are not against the idea of decentralising jobs but the policy has been mismanaged. It is time for ministers to stop what they are doing, review it rigorously and consult widely."
A spokeswoman for Transport Scotland said: "Fifty-seven workers are being paid travelling expenses. What workers receive is the difference between what it cost them to commute before and what it costs now. We also have a flexible approach to their working hours. The people who were re-located from being office based in Edinburgh live in a range of places all over central Scotland."
An Executive spokeswoman defended the relocation policy. She said: "The aim is to make sure that the benefits of devolution are spread across Scotland. Decisions on which agencies are to relocate and where they go are taken after a careful economic analysis."
Transport Scotland were formed in January last year in Edinburgh. They are now based in Port Dundas Road, in Cowcaddens, Glasgow. The national transport agency oversee the running of trunk roads, the rail network and the concessionary travel scheme.
An Audit Scotland report last September estimated that the impact or relocating jobs ranged between a saving of £33,000 per job to a cost of £45,000 per job.
Text comprehension exercises
Exercise I. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false:
Decentralization of jobs proved to be a bad idea.
There are numerous calls for future relocations to be stopped until the policy is reviewed.
A new scheme of payment has been introduced – to pay more for working less.
Flexible approach to working hours has been introduced in Transport Scotland.
Commuters working in Edinburgh can't get a seat on the train as the trains are overcrowded.
One of the aims of the relocation policy was to benefit people living in other areas of Scotland.
Exercise II. Summarize advantages and disadvantages of relocation policy.
Exercise III Paraphrase the title of the article.
Part III Word wealth
Exercise I. Translate the following sentences into Russian, paying special attention to underlined words.
Extra workers have had to be taken on to make up for man hours lost while the staff are getting to and from their new office.
Taxpayers are forking out £5000 a week to pay them travel expenses.
About 57 of the staff, who work for Transport Scotland, now face a longer journey to work.
I get about three hours knocked off the working day.
It must be costing a fortune
Exercise II. Arrange the words into pairs of synonyms.
To be in favour, to move, expenses, to support, consider, to relocate, estimate, to compensate, think out, calculate, costs, to make up for
Exercise III Fill in the blanks with necessary words
One Transport Scotland worker said: "It does seem a bit ridiculous. I live in Edinburgh and my train fare, which is about £18, is ____ every day.
She said: "The aim is to make ___ that the benefits of devolution are spread across Scotland. Decisions on which agencies are to relocate and where they go are taken ____ a careful economic analysis."
One of the jokes in the office is that other commuters can't get a ____ on the train from Edinburgh in the morning because Transport Scotland workers have taken them all."
I live in Edinburgh and my train fare, which is about £18, is paid every day. I get about three hours knocked off the working day - it's like getting paid ___ to work ___.
It happened after the Executive ____ 150 public sector workers from Edinburgh to Glasgow last year. About 57 of the staff, who work for Transport Scotland, now face a longer journey to work. The Executive agreed to pay their ____ travel expenses.
Поисковое чтение
Text IV
Citizen classes 'must put more emphasis on British identity'
From Telegraph / 22.01.2007
PART I Pre-reading activities
Check the understanding of the following words and phrases, find their equivalents in Russian:
Identity, tolerance, value, citizenship classes, cultural diversity, justice
Study the notion of ‘identity’/‘national identity’/’individual identity’. Consult the English-English dictionary and Linguo-cultural dictionary. What do you know about the problem of national identity? How do you understand the term ‘Britishness’? Do you think national identity should be taught at school?
Study the following words and word combinations which denote the so-called ‘realia’ – objects and phenomena peculiar the British society, its structural organization, spiritual life, traditions, customs, etc.:
Ofsted (in the UK) Office for Standards in Education, an organization monitoring standards in schools by means of regular inspections (acronym).
Headmaster the principal teacher in charge of a school.
Home Office the British government department dealing with law and order, immigration, etc., in England and Wales.
Jingo noun: 1) ура-патриот, шовинист; 2) ура-патриотизм, шовинизм; adj.: шовинистический, ура-патриотический. Syn: chauvinistic , jingoistic.
Jingoistic [17th c.: originally a conjuror's word: political sense from use of by jingo in a popular song, first applied to those supporting the sending of a British fleet into Turkish waters to resist Russia in 1878]
CSV volunteer charity organization (non-governmental)
Study the following notes on some words from the text which can be helpful in understanding the text.
dotcom (= dot-com) дотком, интернет-компания (бизнес и источники прибыли которой сосредоточены в сети Интернет; название образовано от английского прочтения окончания ".com" электронных адресов таких компаний);
curriculum курс обучения, учебный план (школы, института, университета)
Part II Reading for Comprehension
Read the text
Values such as justice and tolerance should be at the heart of a reformed programme of citizenship classes for secondary school pupils, a Government-commissioned report will say this week.
The review of the citizenship curriculum by Sir Keith Ajegbo, a former headmaster and Home Office adviser, will conclude that it does not place enough emphasis on British identity and that more must be done to provide "the essential glue" that binds society together.
He will call on teachers to learn from the experiences of schools in Oldham and Bradford after the 2001 race riots which devised lessons for pupils to discuss their identity, values and what made them British.
Sir Keith's review will be seen as a damning assessment of the Government's citizenship programme for secondary schools, introduced in 2002 by the former education secretary, David Blunkett. The compulsory lessons were designed to "help pupils become informed, thoughtful and responsible citizens who are aware of their rights and responsibilities".
But a year after their introduction, Ofsted inspectors said the incorporation of citizenship into the curriculum had been mismanaged in more than half of schools and the subject was "well developed" in only five. A separate report by CSV, the volunteer charity, claimed that half of teachers felt they did not have enough time or backing to do the subject justice.
Alan Johnson, the Education Secretary, speaking ahead of the review's publication on Thursday, said yesterday that schools should do more to teach pupils the core British values of justice, fairness, equality and tolerance.
He said the furor over alleged racism on Channel 4's Celebrity Big Brother highlighted the need for schools to create "greater community cohesion".
"We want the world to be talking about the respect and understanding we give all cultures not the ignorance and bigotry shown on our TV screens," he said. "Schools should be a force for good in tackling racism by creating understanding and debating what it means to be British. We must teach children about our shared British heritage while fostering an understanding of our cultural diversity and the uniqueness of our individual identity."
Mr Johnson was speaking as the Channel 4 board – whose members include Lord Puttnam, the filmmaker, and Martha Lane-Fox, the dotcom entrepreneur – prepared to meet tonight to discuss the show for the first time since the race row erupted.
Ofcom, the television regulator, received 40,000 complaints after the Hollywood actress Shilpa Shetty was subjected to a foul-mouthed tirade by the reality TV star Jade Goody in a row over a chicken stock cube. Danielle Lloyd, a model, and the singer Jo O'Meara, were seen laughing at Shetty's distress, with Lloyd heard saying: "I think she should **** off home". She then added: "She can't even speak English properly."
Mary Bousted, the general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, said she hoped that Sir Keith's report would address the meaning of Britishness. "If Britishness involves understanding only a certain interpretation of history, then that's not going to do anything for community cohesion," she said.
"What we have to debate is what it means to be British in the 21st century. Schools are places where values of tolerance are fostered and where people of all races mix. If this report is about how we should celebrate all sections of society, how we should learn to live together and understand certain common values, then it is to be welcomed. Unfortunately, citizenship is often not getting the time it deserves in schools because teachers are having to focus their attention on academic subjects that are constantly being tested."
Steve Sinnott, the general secretary of the National Union of Teachers, said: "The Government must be careful not to give the impression that core British values such as tolerance, fairness and respect for others don't exist in other countries. Britain is not superior in that sense. The discussion of Britishness can sometimes provoke jingoistic sentiments which have to be avoided."
Text comprehension
Exercise I. Define the main topic/problem of the article.
Exercise II. Find in the text basic arguments to support the thesis highlighted in the title.
Exercise III. Indicate which of the following issues are discussed in the text:
racist riots in Great Britain;
antiracist movement in Great Britain
the role of school in fostering national values
the problem of intercultural and interethnic tolerance
what it means to teach ‘national identity’
racism on TV screen
the problem of racism at school
Exercise IV. Indicate which of the following statements are true and which are false:
The notion of ‘Britishness’ must be avoided as it suggests superiority.
Schools are places where values of tolerance and social justice are not taught, unfortunately.
Britishness involves understanding only a certain interpretation of history.
Cultural diversity and uniqueness of individual identity are among the key issues to be taught at citizenship classes.
Part III Word wealth
Exercise I. Find in the following passages set phrases peculiar to the newspaper style:
The review of the citizenship curriculum by Sir Keith Ajegbo, a former headmaster and Home Office adviser, will conclude that it does not place enough emphasis on British identity and that more must be done to provide "the essential glue" that binds society together.
But a year after their introduction, Ofsted inspectors said the incorporation of citizenship into the curriculum had been mismanaged in more than half of schools and the subject was "well developed" in only five. A separate report by CSV, the volunteer charity, claimed that half of teachers felt they did not have enough time or backing to do the subject justice.
He said the furor over alleged racism on Channel 4's Celebrity Big Brother highlighted the need for schools to create "greater community cohesion".
Schools should be a force for good in tackling racism by creating understanding and debating what it means to be British. We must teach children about our shared British heritage while fostering an understanding of our cultural diversity and the uniqueness of our individual identity.
Mary Bousted, the general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, said she hoped that Sir Keith's report would address the meaning of Britishness. "If Britishness involves understanding only a certain interpretation of history, then that's not going to do anything for community cohesion," she said.
Text IV
Figures show number of eastern Europeans in Britain exaggerated
By Andy McSmith
From The Independent /20 January 2007
PART I Pre-reading activities
1. Check whether you understand the following abbreviations:
EU UK TUC
2. Check whether you understand the following words and word combinations:
Migration, immigration, emigration, migrant, immigrant
To register for national insurance To claim benefits
Work permit Europe Minister
Workforce Labour market
Xenophobe To be self-employed
To evade tax
home affairs spokesman for the Liberal Democrats
the Tories' spokesman on immigration
3. Answer the following questions:
a) What is meant by the expansion of the EU in 2004?
b) How can illegal workforce affect the economy of the country?
PART II READING COMPREHENSION
Read the text and do the exercises which follow.
Only 380,000 east European migrants have registered for national insurance purposes since the EU was enlarged in 2004 - far fewer than previous estimates of the number who have come to work in the UK.
The figure suggests that either the Government has a major problem on its hands, with almost a quarter of a million EU migrants working illegally, or that the Home Office estimate of 600,000 was grossly overstated.
Richard Exell, the TUC's labour market specialist, said: "We have always said that the 600,000 figure was too high, because it only counts the number who have come in; it does not allow for those who have come in, gone away, and come back. There has never been 600,000 people from eastern Europe working here."
The former Europe minister, Denis MacShane, said: "This is an astonishing figure. It shows the alarmist rhetoric of those who have been blaming the Poles and other EU nationals for taking British jobs has been false. It is one in the eye for the xenophobes and Europe-haters."
Nick Clegg, home affairs spokesman for the Liberal Democrats, said: "Once again, the left hand of Government does not know what the right hand is doing. No wonder the public is left confused when such wildly differing figures are bandied about. These statistics raise serious question marks about the sky-high figures used by Migration Watch and others."
But Damian Green, the Tories' spokesman on immigration, said: "This is quite a disturbing figure. It suggests that there are more people than we thought working without national insurance numbers. My first question is, where are the other 70,000 people who applied for work permits? Does this mean that the cowboy sector is even bigger than we thought?"
Previous estimates of the number of migrant workers from the 10 countries that joined the EU in May 2004 have been based on the fact that 447,000 have applied for work permits, and it is assumed that about half as many again are self-employed. It is illegal to work in the UK, either as an employee or self-employed, without registering for national insurance.
Unlike the Home Office's estimate of 600,000, the new figure, posted on the Department of Work and Pensions website after a Freedom of Information request, is not an estimate but an exact count of how many migrants have registered for national insurance, and which part of the world they come from.
The discrepancy will be partly made up of people who are working without national insurance numbers, either through delays in the system or because they are breaking the law. There are fears that some, unfamiliar with British law, will have been induced by cowboy employers not to register, to evade tax.
The figures also show that the number of foreign workers claiming benefits fell - confirming that the great majority of people coming in from eastern Europe are genuinely looking for work, not seeking to live off the welfare state. Before 2004, there was no great difference between the proportion of foreign workers and the proportion of the British workforce claiming benefits. Both figures were around 12 per cent. Now only 3 per cent of foreign workers are claimants, the proportion having been driven downward by the influx from eastern Europe.
The figures also show that the average age of migrant workers has fallen since the EU expanded. Before 2004, 32 per cent were under 25. That proportion has climbed to 37 per cent. About half of all migrant workers are in London and the South-east.
Danny Sriskandarajah, associate director of the Institute for Public Policy Research, said: "If you look beyond the headlines the story is not nearly as scary as some make out. We know that the Home Office figure of 600,000 is not accurate. It includes people who were here for only a very short time, and then went back. This lower figure is a much better indication of how many are here to stay."
Text comprehension
Exercise I. Find answers to the following questions:
How did the expansion of the EU affect the labour market in the UK?
What are the main tendencies in migration process in the UK?
What does it mean ‘to work illegally’ in the UK?
What is meant by ‘a cowboy sector’, ‘cowboy employer’?
What is meant by ‘Europe-haters’?
What are the chief reasons for people working without registering for national insurance?
Exercise II. Supply the facts from the text which prove the following statements:
The Home Office's estimate of 600,000 migrants is exaggerated.
The great majority of people coming in from eastern Europe are genuinely looking for work, not seeking to live off the welfare state
Exercise III. Express your opinion on the following issues:
Influx of migrants from other countries affects the employment situation in the country.
Illegal workforce undermines the economy of the country.
Part III Word wealth
Exercise I. Paraphrase the following word-combinations/underlined words and phrases:
To look beyond the headlines
To have a problem on one’s hands
To live off the welfare state
To be unfamiliar with British law
The figure suggests…
No wonder the public is left confused when such wildly differing figures are bandied about
The discrepancy will be partly made up of people who are working without national insurance numbers
These statistics raise serious question marks about the sky-high figures used by Migration Watch and others
Exercise II. Supply prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions where necessary:
Previous estimates ___ the number of migrant workers ___ the 10 countries that joined the EU in May 2004 have been based ___ the fact that 447,000 have applied ___ work permits.
The figures also show that the average age of migrant workers has fallen ___ the EU expanded. Before 2004, 32 per cent were ___ 25. That proportion has climbed ___ 37 per cent. About half ___ all migrant workers are in London and the South-east.
Детальные обзоры публикаций, посвященных различным стратегиям и опорам при освоении новых иноязычных слов и при понимании текста на иностранном языке, см. в работах [Медведева 1998; 1999а].
Условия для переноса умений и навыков из родного языка создаются главным образом за счет того, что чтение на иностранном языке с самого начала обучения трактуется как форма речевого общения, т. е. от читающего ожидаются те же результаты, что и при чтении на родном языке. Другим фактором, обеспечивающим благоприятные условия для переноса, является легкость текстов в языковом отношении. Соблюдение этого условия достигается за счет предварительного (до чтения текстов) знакомства с лексикой, исключения неизвестных грамматических структур, выполнения предтекстовых упражнений, создающих направленность мысли, обучающих прогнозированию и речевой догадке.
11
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