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Лингво-культурологические особенности в переводе рекламного дискурса на основе трех языков: Русский, английский, французский.

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Contents Introduction 3 1 Advertisement as a special type of discourse 5 1.1 Linguistic and imagery specifics of the advertisement discourse 5 1.2 Symbolism in the advertisement discourse 12 1.3 National and cultural specifics of the advertisement discourse 15 2 Approaches to advertising translation based on the cultural differences 20 2.1 Translation as a means of cultural transfer 20 2.2 Translation of the advertising discourse 26 2.2 Specifics of Russian, English, French advertising discourse 31 3 Peculiarities of translation of the advertisement discourse with national and cultural specifics 36 2.1 Translation of the Russian advertisement discourse with cultural specifics 36 2.2 Translation of the English advertisement discourse with cultural specifics 40 2.3 Translation of the French advertisement discourse with cultural specifics 45 Conclusion 48 References 50 Dictionaries 55   Содержание

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She helps a main character.This character isn't altered in the advertising.These characters could be domesticated by the foreign publicity through the characters of traditional European fairy tales such as Sleeping Beauty, Blue Beard, Forest Gump.The publicity “A small village house” is devoted to the ideal image of Russian fair of the beginning of XX-th century. Fair is the phenomenon which is rightfully identified as a national treasure. It was the place for realization of goods produced in the utmost regions of the world.“The Fair is a tremendous nationwide market. There you can annually and rather accurately estimate the purchasing power of the whole Russian population, from Moscow to the periphery of Siberia and Central Asia, where Russian products are exchanged for Japanese, American, and British ones. The purchasing power in Russia is determined annually from the cereals crop. The merchants, when setting the prices, consider potential profit and loss, and forecast the output volume for the next year, according to the demand and supply at the Fair at the end of the current agricultural year”(The Agendum, 1916).So any fair was a great way to show oneself, to buy some goods, to relax and amuse. This public festivals were indeed way to meet a lot of people and to be distracted from daily routine. Especially we have this in mind when we are talking about Maslenitza.For domestication of such a publicity we can suggest such a specific date as Thanksgiving day.There are other images, goods and ideas used in advertising that are closely connected to Russia. Vodka is promoted by the idea of the “true Russian” drink. Slogan of the vodka “Russian Standard” is the following: “Vodka as it should be”. There is a clear correlation between the trademark and the slogan: “Vodka s it should be (according to Russian standard)”, as if brackets are omitted here. Slogan “Vodka as it should be” is short, catchy and easy to remember, as any slogan should be. It is interesting to compare the slogan of the same trademark in Russian and in English: Kalinka (Russian products) “Explore the taste of Russia” and “Вспомнивкусдома”. It is obvious that these two slogans have different target audience. English slogan is for the English speaking people for whom the Russian food is an example of exotic food. Russian slogan is for the Russian audience (maybe for migrants) and its target is to remind about “home”, not to offer some exotic tastes.There are inefficient examples of the translation of slogans or trademarks from Russian into English. Forexample, “Gazprom” entered a contract with “Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation”. Newjointcompany getaname “Nigaz” butthistrademark came to be highly unsuccessful, because it sounds like “niggaz”, an offensive term for the Black people. So this abbreviation should be changed in order not to sound offensive.There is a historic example of the same situation. Russiancars “Жигули” changes their name into “Lada” when they entered the international market, because in English “Жигули” sounds close to “Gigolo”. The idea to change the mane of the car was efficient and met the interests of the company.3.2 Translation of the English advertisement discourse with cultural specificsThere are many goods and services of the British, American or another English-speaking country origin, so it is easy to find materials to analyse the translations of the advertisements from English into other languages.As we’ve pointed out it already advertising texts have their peculiarities depending on the country or culture, but there are other peculiarities that are defined by the kind of promoting goods and services. For example there are goods and services that can be defined as luxury goods, and consumption of these goods has other reasons than consumption of fast moving consumer goods. The idea of these goods is connected with the idea of the conspicuous consumptionthat means to spend money on and to acquire luxury goods and servicesto publicly display economic power—of the income or of the accumulated wealth of the buyer. To the conspicuous consumer, such a public display ofdiscretionaryeconomic power is a means either of attaining or of maintaining a givensocial status.Peculiarities of luxury goods advertising are related to the target audience of these goods, which differs from the target audience of consumer goods. We can find images and symbols of luxurious life in these advertisements. Some of these images and symbols can have cultural specifics. Besides any advertisement (both of luxury and consumer goods) can contain different puns, that also represent cultural peculiarities, because they cannot be translated normally, they can exist only in one language.The example of luxury goods is Parker pen. TheParker Pen Companyis a manufacturer of luxury pens, which are well-known all over the world. Nowadays anyone can use very cheap pens which can be bought everywhere, but an expensive pen is not only a writing instrument, it is a symbol of its owner’s position. This idea is used in the advertisements of this pen.There are many slogans representing Parker pens in many languages. Let’s show several examples of the English slogans. Parker pen. You are what you eat.More than a touch, a stroke of genius.More than a touch, a caress.It won’t leak in your pocket and embarrass you.Usually on Father’s Day children demonstrate their love to dads by buying them a beautiful Parker pen. Mr. Parker’s children instead buy their dad other things like handkerchiefs, socks, ties… Poor Mr. Parker.Melancholy and another 963000 emotions are better with ink.Fury and another 963000 emotions are better with ink.Anxiety and another 963000 emotions are better with ink.At a loss for words? ExperienceParker 5th the next generation in pens.Several advertising text and slogan represented here can be translate without any special domestication, for example:“Melancholy and another 963000 emotions are better with ink” — «Меланхолияидругие 96300 чувствстановятсялучшесчернилами»;“More than a touch, a caress” — «Неприкосновение — ласка», etc.Besides the idea “You are what you eat” is international. It has both Russian and French variants:“Ты то, что ты ешь”.“Tu es ce que tu manges”.This slogans refers to the quality of ink that are used in pen.But several other examples need domestication because they contain puns or other cultural specifics.For example, this slogan “More than a touch, a stroke of genius” is based on the double meaning of the word combination “a stroke of genius”. As a free structure it means “a mark, flourish, or line made by a writing implement made by genius”, as an idiom it means “ingenious idea” or “ingenious decision”. So one slogan combines both meanings, because we can make a stroke (1st meaning) with this pen, and it is undermined that any stroke with this pen can be a result of an insight of some kind or can result in this insight (2nd meaning).This slogan has its translation into Russian. When it was domesticated, it kept this pun, but some differences were made to it:Отличительнаячертагениальности.There is another pun in Russian version. It is based on the double meaning of the word “черта”, which can mean “узкаяполоса, линия” and “Линия,очертание,создающеевсовокупностиоблик,формучеловеческоголица”. So the pun emerges because of the interaction of these two meanings: you can make strokes (“черты”) with this pen and also when you using them it makes you create something ingenious (or maybe it makes you resemble a genius). Sodespite the changes that were made in order to keep the pun this slogan also keeps the main images and ideas that were used in the original slogan: genius and stroke of the pen.There is one slogan that contains cultural specifics such as holidays. Let’s quote it again and analyse:Usually on Father’s Day children demonstrate their love to dads by buying them a beautiful Parker pen. Mr. Parker’s children instead buy their dad other things like handkerchiefs, socks, ties… Poor Mr. Parker.Father’s Days is a celebration honouring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society. Many countries celebrate it on the third Sunday of June, though it is also celebrated widely on other days by many other countries.This holiday however is not celebrated in Russia widely, so in order to domesticate this advertisement some suitable replacement should be used, for example birthday (“деньрождения”) instead of Father’s Day. This replacement helps to keep the idea of the family holiday.ThereispureRussian slogan used for promoting this pen among Russian customers.Ручка Parker делает руку твёрдой, работу лёгкой, а подпись солидной.This slogan underlines the main features of the good work and good professional. It is interesting that here we can see an advertisement of the luxury goods that has a larger audience, because everyone wants to have steady hand, easy job and trustworthy subscription. Consumer goods can also be advertised with culturally-specific images. Chain of fast-food restaurants “Burger King” often uses such slogans and images. For example there is an advertisement that represents a black burger with the following slogan:Bold. Flavorful. Just like you. Black person burger.This slogan defines the target audience of the advertisement — black people. Besides the choice of the word is interesting. “Person” can be referred both to men and women, instead of “man” that’s nowadays referred mostly to men. We can see a bit of irony toward the idea of politically correct language that is very popular both in the USA and the UK. This slogan can easily be domesticated, but the translator must remember about the politically correct word that should be used in the slogan, but there is a difficulty defined by the fact that in French the politically correct word for the Black is “Noir”, and this word has two forms, male and female. Plural of this word can also be both male and female. So any version of literal translation would “kill” the original slogan. In the contrast, this slogan is easily translated into Russian “Бургердлячёрных”,because the adjectives in plural have no gender in Russian. The form “чёрные”suits both male and female. The other slogan with cultural specifics is the following:Imma let you finish, but… the Angry Kanye is one of the best burgers of all time.Kanye Omari West is an American hip hop recording artist, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer, and entrepreneur. He is well-known among those people who are interested in modern media and pop-culture, so the name need not to be replaced, but this slogan begins with the word “imma”, that is a “hip hop word”, so this word should be translated with the corresponding word or word combination that is associated with hip hop. For example in Russian it can be replace with the word “йоу”. The publicity “H&M Modern Essentials selected by David Beckham featuring Kevin Hart” it the short story of the famous English footballer David Beckham, his life style, cultural particularities, habits, manners etc. and a no less famous American comic actor, producer Kevin Hart. In the beginning of the short movie Kevin comes to David and begins to copy him, feature him in intention to have the idea of how to play David. Kevin says that he never has done this before and from now on he plunges into the copying of David. For example Kevin tries to adopt his way of moving, his intonations, his vocabulary, his exercises, his voice and life-style. This kind of domestication is also a way of adoption some foreign concepts. In this case we don't speak about different language but about different cultures – American and British. One of the examples of difference between the cultures it's an example with tea: How much tea do you drink in a day? - asks Kevin. I'm Englishman. I drink a lot of tea, - answers David. Englishman... drinks... a lot of tea, - notes Kevin. So we see the strategy of such domestication a cultural and individual features. Kevin translates into his own way of life the one of David. This advertisement however need not to be culturally transferred into other cultures, it only needs translation, because David Beckham is a very well known football-player, and the peculiarities of English way vs American way of life of life are often used as a base for the jokes, so they are also widely known.Summing up, we should point out that English advertisement can have its cultural peculiarities (such as holidays), but the modern world is under strong influence of the American culture, so many American and English advertisements need not to be domesticated, they only need to be translated into the language of the host culture.2.3 Translation of the French advertisement discourse with cultural specificsFrench goods and services are also sold all over the world, so their advertising needs domestication in many cases. There is an interesting example of cultural adaptation in the advertisement of Renault Company. This company sells cars that are well-known all over the world. There is an advertising campaign connected to the fact that Renault beat Ferrari on Formula 1. The slogan of this campaign was ‘Red is dead” in English and “Le rouge est dépassé” in French. The word “dépassé” is a past participle of the polysemantic verb that means «excéderunequantité,unedurée, surpasserquelqu'undansundomaineprécis, au sens figurédérouter,êtredérouté» (played out in quality or duration ; surpassed by something or someone in literal orfigurative sense). These meanings correspond both the idea of one car beating another car during the race and one company “killing off another one” during the competitive battle. So French version deals with the double meaning of the polysemantic word. Both meanings are involved in the slogan. English version is rhymed, and this is the main difference with the French version, but the word used in the English slogan has its own shades of meaning. first of all, its main meaning is “no longer alive”, so the idea of “killing off” the business rival prevails in the English version of the slogan. Also the word “dead” means “no longer in use, valid, effective, or relevant; stagnant”. This meaning refers to the idea that Renault is in any way better now (more alive) than Ferrari. This campaign has not only slogan, but also visual accompaniment. There are several posters with this slogan, and these posters reflect the cultural specifics. French poster represents the yellow ketchup. The idea is quite clear: ketchup is made from tomatoes, and tomatoes are mostly red of colour, but now yellow’s defeat red in every field, so even ketchup now can change its colour. The English version represents the yellow phone box. The red telephone box, a telephone kioskfor a public telephone designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, was a familiar sight on the streets of the United Kingdom, Malta, Bermuda and Gibraltar.Despite a reduction in their numbers in recent years, the traditional British red telephone kiosk can still be seen in many places throughout the UK, and in current or former British colonies around the world. The colour red was chosen to make them easy to spot.So the image of the red telephone box is one of the images that are closely associated with the UK, it is one the cultural symbols of the country. And even this symbol can change its colour. Slogans of the different models of this car change depending on the language. For example “Renault duster” has different variant of slogan for English-speaking and French audience. English: for the unstoppable Indian.French : Rendez-vous au sommet (meeting at the top / summit).English slogan underlines the idea of non-stop moving that is understandable for American or English culture, besides this version uses the image of the Indian person. French version uses another image: “sommet” mean “summit”, so here we see a clear idea of the car driving us to the summit, to the highest point of our life. Besides this word has sexual correlation which are often used in French advertising practice. The same sexual subtext we can find in the slogan for the advertising campaign of the other model of this car. Compare:French: activez vos sensations (animate your feelings)English: 1700 km on one tank. Why stop?Here we can see the same correlation between the image in the slogan and the culture. The English slogan deals with the idea of keeping moving and the French one uses sexual subtext.This examples show that there are differences in the advertisement in Russian, English and French that can be transferred into other languages and cultures, but sometimes this differences are so culturally marked that they become untranslatable. Russian advertisement often uses cultural images from fairy-tales and modern tales. They can be replaced by the corresponding characters during translation, but they also can be kept in order to make this advertisement sounds more “exotic”. French advertisement widely uses sexual subtext and cultural references. The latter closes it to the Russian advertisement. While this advertisement is translated and domesticated it is necessary to check if this subtext is tolerated in the culture where the advertisement is transferred.American advertisement tends to be more universal that is easily explained by the idea that nowadays American advertisement and American trademarks dominate the world, so they should be understandable all over the world. But there are several examples of the advertisement in English that are difficult to domesticate because of the double meaning of the words used in the advertisement or because of grammar specifics of the English language that were used in the advertisement.ConclusionAccording to the goal of our research, one can conclude the following.In the course of interaction between cultures it becomes necessary to adapt ideas and images of one culture to the other, especially when it comes to advertisement. Advertisement plays a very prominent role in modern culture, because it reflects modern way of life, stereotypes and modern culture. When goods and services begin to be sold in different countries, they need to be promoted, so it is necessary not only to export goods and services, but to advertise them in the new county in terms that can be understood by the new customers. Advertising must be memorable or it will not carry out its functions. Advertisement has several goals, and every goal must be achieved both in original advertising text and its translation. First, advertisement introduces goods to the customers, especially to the target audience. This introduction must be clear, the function of these goods should be obvious. Next, this advertisement should persuade the customer to buy this exact goods, not the same goods but of another trademark. And here lies the difficulty. We can notice several kinds of intercultural adaptation of stereotypes in advertisement. The first type is a translation of it, when the slogan is simply translated without any other adaptation (literal translation). This type is often used in American advertisement, because American culture, especially pop-culture is widely dominating nowadays. Images and symbols from the American pop-culture are widely recognizable. The second way is the cultural adaptation, when stereotypes and features are transferred into the other culture along with the language. This type undermines that images and symbols of the original advertisement are replaced with the symbols and images of the host culture.This type can be used if a case when images with bright cultural specifics are used in the advertisement. This often happens in Russian advertisement, because Russian culture (including folk-culture) is an object of pride in Russia. 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