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Электронные деньги и платежные ссистемы

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Дата создания 27.02.2016
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Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Essence of electronic money and direction of their use 4 3. World practice of regulation of use of electronic money 6 4. International payment systems: history, tendencies of development, prospect 12 5. Conclusion 16 6. References 18 Содержание

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Innovative payment system and type of electronic currency. The main feature of carrying out payments by means of Bitcoin consists in impossibility of cancellation, the block or compulsory carrying out operation on payment. Possibilities of payment Bitcoin system: The lowest commission, high level of cryptographic reliability of Bitcoin allows to make transactions very cheap and effectively.It is possible to note also some other electronic payment systems of the world: AlertPay, Google Wallet, Moneybookers, Elios Gold, e-Bullion, ePayService.In economically developed countries the share of calculations by means of payment systems considerably exceeds a share of calculations with use of cash. According to the available estimates, the smallest level of calculations by cash is characteristic for Iceland (9%) and the Scandinavian countries: 28% – in Norway, 32% – in Finland, 37% – in Sweden. The smallest share of clearing settlements is observed in the southern European countries where calculations by cash make 60–80% of a payment turn, and sometimes above.In a non-cash retail, segment change of priorities when using various payment tools is observed. These processes are especially distinctly shown in the main countries of the check address. It is known that in the territory of the USA and Canada in the 20th century up to the beginning of the 1990th years among all forms of clearing settlements by number of operations calculations by means of checks prevailed. So, about 82% and 66.8% of all economic transactions in these countries respectively were the share of the check address.At the present stage, checks are replaced with cash cards. So, in the countries where it was traditionally developed чекооборот (the USA, Canada, Great Britain), credit cards prevail. However, the steady tendency to more intensive use in these countries of debit cards came to light in recent years. So, the number of transaction with use of debit cards in 2014 in the territory of the EU made 18,28 billion operations that several times above, than on credit cards (2,67 billion transaction). Fast distribution of cash cards in system of clearing settlements is promoted by existence of a wide network of the trade and service enterprises accepting cards in payment for goods and services, the ATMs allowing making payments, to bring and withdraw money from the bank account. The main issuers of payment cards in the world market are the credit organizations, being participants of the international Visa and MasterCard systems of which 50% and 30% of total of the issued cards respectively are the share. American Express of 18% takes the third place, and less than 2% are the share of Diners Club, JCB, etc. (see drawing) (fig.4).Fig. 4. Use of payment systemsElectronic payment systems have only one opportunity to win attention and to attract new users – prompt and persistent promoting of the electronic purses, differently they can lose fight for the consumer.It is established that some virtual purses for online purchases use not many at once. The same as at a campaign in traditional shop, we take only 1 wallet, people choose only 1 service for purchases in online stores and don't change it until something starts not suit them. Survey conducted recently showed that 62% of buyers have only 1 electronic purse and aren't going to bring the second.Each new system has to understand it – if the competitor outstrips it, the client will be lost forever.Developers of electronic purses have to be ready to that for achievement of success; they should spend considerable funds for advance and development of the product. Thus payment systems have to becomes more and more universal, it is possible to work as with a large number of trading floors that the consumer had no need to be arranged under each retailer.ConclusionDevelopment of Internet technologies and electronic commerce (the interactive order of goods and its payment on the Internet) have important impact on process of automation of non-cash forms of calculations. Modern information technologies with use of electronic devices and communications are a basis for implementation of remote bank operations at which visit by the client of bank office isn't required.In all sectors of economy there is an active process of replacement of cash and monetary payments with non-cash forms of calculations among which recently steam is gained by card schemes of payment and electronic clearing through the automated clearing houses. In turn, appeal of calculations with use of cards it is caused by a wide network of ATMs and settlement terminals. Among payment cards the greatest active distribution is gained by debit cards, and the level of operations on credit cards remains rather stable. And, at last, among remote forms of calculations the role of technologies with application of the Internet and mobile telephony raises.Development of non-cash payment systems in the countries of the world is followed by the state stimulation and the competition between the main international rationing systems in the USA and Europe. After the association Master Card with Europay there was a global system presented by the competing American Express, Diners Club, Master Card and Visa and various local or even national systems which supplement the international networks. The competition between these networks and the smaller companies, and also possibilities of scientific and technical progress led to considerable technological card break, including decrease in distribution costs, increase of speed, reliability of carrying out payments, efficiency of all calculations, strengthening of protection against fraud, expansion of functionality of cards.The main practical task which was solved since the beginning of introduction of plastic cards, - reduction of a share of cash and checks in the address.Since the beginning of the 90th years of the XX century in development of payment systems in the world two tendencies – growth of a share of debit cards (now their about one billion in the world) and development of electronic commerce dominate.Abroad retail electronic payments by means of cash cards became the preferential instrument of payment allowing to reduce considerably difficulties of an exchange of paper money, payment documents and access to goods and services. Development of many branches of global economy, especially travel, rest and entertainments stimulates demand for electronic money. And extent of development of a banking system and a condition of clearing settlements are interconnected and interdependent. Criterion in this development is existence of personal bank accounts at the population is more senior than 15 years. In the developed countries this level fluctuates between 85% (Australia and Japan) and 98% (Germany) whereas in the moderately developed countries it reaches 45-55% (Malaysia, Argentina, South Africa), and in developing countries makes only 35% in Mexico, 30% in Poland and 20% in India.For the countries with underdeveloped economy electronic money is basic break in access of the population to considerable part with the low income to modern financial instruments and technologies. Development of electronic systems of payment as means of calculations of consumers and payment of the income increases transparency of financial streams in the countries with shadow sector, promotes a collecting of taxes.Use of the credits by means of plastic cards is in general favorable to needy households, however in case of an economic crisis large volume of debts at the high rates can be difficult to payment. In the developed countries economists regularly call for care in use of the credit, pointing to danger of uncontrolled and thoughtless use of the credit by part of the population. This threat constitutes direct commercial danger and to banks.The non-cash system of payments at creation of adequate legislative base and infrastructure promotes acceleration of integration of the country into global economy. It should be noted bilateral nature of dependence: developed economies have more modern electronic systems of payments and the credit, and the last positively influence economic growth.Increase of efficiency of national economy, success in the global competition to use of the national natural or saved-up advantages in many respects depends on the organization of payment systems, their reliability and convenience to all participants of the market. The states interested in transparency of financial streams (in particular, retail trade, public catering, transport), decrease in expenses of payment system, growth of the consumer credit and development of retail banking network, usually seek to develop system of calculations by cash cards, including special measures for reduction of the sphere of cash calculations.ReferencesBank of America. [Electronic resource]https://www.bankofamerica.com.Directive 2000/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the taking up, pursuit of and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions.Official Journal L 275, 27/10/2000 P. 0039 – 0043. [Electronic version], http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0046:EN:HTML.Directive 2009/110/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 16 September 2009. [Electronic version], http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32009L0110Hancock D. and David B. Humphrey, (2011). “Payment transactions, instruments, andsystems:A survey”. Journal of Banking and Finance 21, 1573–1624.Hayes T., Frisbie R. (2011). The regulation of traditional and alternative electronic payments. Monetary Authority of Singapore. [Electronic resource], http://www.mas.gov.sg/Regulations-and-Financial-Stability/Regulatory-and-Supervisory-Framework/Regulatory-Instruments-Issued-by-MAS.aspxWorld Payments Report. Capgemini and The Royal Bank of Scotland pic (RBS). 2011.

Список литературы

6. References 1. Bank of America. [Electronic resource] https://www.bankofamerica.com. 2. Directive 2000/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the taking up, pursuit of and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions. Official Journal L 275, 27/10/2000 P. 0039 – 0043. [Electronic version], http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32000L0046:EN:HTML. 3. Directive 2009/110/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 16 September 2009. [Electronic version], http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32009L0110 4. Hancock D. and David B. Humphrey, (2011). “Payment transactions, instruments, and systems: A survey”. Journal of Banking and Finance 21, 1573–1624. 5. Hayes T., Frisbie R. (2011). The regulation of traditional and alternative electronic payments. 6. Monetary Authority of Singapore. [Electronic resource], http://www.mas.gov.sg/Regulations-and-Financial-Stability/Regulatory-and-Supervisory-Framework/Regulatory-Instruments-Issued-by-MAS.aspx 7. World Payments Report. Capgemini and The Royal Bank of Scotland pic (RBS). 2011. список литературы
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